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Toilet Training


[1] Blum NJ, Taubman B, Nemeth N. Relationship between age at initiation of toilet training and duration of training: a prospective study. Pediatrics. 2003 Apr;111(4 Pt 1):810-4.

Toilet Training Guidelines: Parents-The Role of the Parents in Toilet Training. Pediatrics. 1999 Jun;103(6 Pt 2):1362-1363.

Schrader, J. Potty training tactics: timing, positive reinforcement important in toilet training. University of Michigan Health Minute. June 28, 2005. Available at: Accessed 7 March 2010.



Written and compiled by Kyla Boyse, R.N. and Kate Fitzgerald, M.D. Reviewed by faculty and staff at the University of Michigan.

Updated March 2010

U-M Health System Related Sites:
U-M Pediatrics

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