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Safety Out and About

Walking, Biking, Scooter, School Bus and Shopping Cart Safety


[1] Rivara FP, Bergman AB, Drake C. Parental attitudes and practices toward children as pedestrians. Pediatrics.  1989 Dec;84(6):1017-21. 

[2] Dunne RG, Asher KN, Rivara FP. Behavior and parental expectations of child pedestrians. Pediatrics.  1992 Mar;89(3):486-90. 

[3] ] Agran PF, Winn DG, Anderson CL. Differences in child pedestrian injury events by location. Pediatrics. 1994 Feb;93(2):284-8.

[4] Ehrlich PF, Helmkamp JC, Williams JM, Haque A, Furbee PM. Matched analysis of parent's and children's attitudes and practices towards motor vehicle and bicycle safety: an important information gap. Inj Control Saf Promot. 2004 Mar;11(1):23-8.

[5] Thompson RS, Rivara FP, Thompson DC A case control study of the effectiveness of bicycle safety helmets. N Engl J Med 1989; 320:1361-1367

[6] Thompson DC, Rivara FP, Thompson RS Effectiveness of bicycle safety helmets in preventing head injuries. A case-control study. JAMA 1996; 276:1968-1973

[7] Thompson DC, Nunn ME, Thompson RS, Rivara FP Effectiveness of bicycle safety helmets in preventing serious facial injury. JAMA 1996; 276:1974-1975

[8] Rivara FP, Astley SJ, Clarren SK, Thompson DC, Thompson RS. Fit of bicycle safety helmets and risk of head injuries in children. Inj Prev.  1999 Sep;5(3):194-7. 

[9] American Academy of Pediatrics. Bicycle helmets.  Committee on Injury and Poison Prevention.  Pediatrics. 2001 Oct;108(4):1030-2. 

[10] Forjuoh SN, Fiesinger T, Schuchmann JA, Mason S. Helmet use: a survey of 4 common childhood leisure activities. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2002 Jul;156(7):656-61.

[11] US Consumer Product Safety Commission.  Motorized scooter use increases and injuries climb.  Available at URL:  Accessed 19 June 2006.

[12] Powell EC, Tanz RR. Tykes and bikes: injuries associated with bicycle-towed child trailers and bicycle-mounted child seats.  Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2000 Apr;154(4):351-3. 

[13] Tanz RR, Christoffel KK. Tykes on bikes: injuries associated with bicycle-mounted child seats.  Pediatr Emerg Care. 1991 Oct;7(5):297-301.

[14] Sargent JD, Peck MG, Weitzman M.  Bicycle-mounted child seats. Injury risk and prevention.  Am J Dis Child. 1988 Jul;142(7):765-7.

[15] US Consumer Product Safety Commission.  Shopping cart injuries: victims five years old and younger.  Available at URL:  Accessed 19 June 2006.

[16] American Academy of Pediatrics.  Car safety seats: a guide for families, 2006.  Available at URL:   Accessed 19 June 2006.

Written and compiled by Kyla Boyse, R.N.  Reviewed by faculty and staff at the University of Michigan

Updated October 2009

U-M Health System Related Sites:
U-M Pediatrics

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