Skip Navigation

Obesity and Overweight


[1] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).  Accessed 23 January 2007.

[2] U.S. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences.  Obesity and the Environment.  April 2005.  Available from:  Accessed 20 June 2006.

[3] CDC.  Facts about obesity in the United States.  Accessed 23 January 2007

[4] Freedman DS, Dietz WH, Srinivasan SR, Berenson GS. The relation of overweight to cardiovascular risk factors among children and adolescents: the Bogalusa heart study. Pediatr. 1999;103:1175-82.

[5] Must A, Jacques PF, Dallal GE, Bajema DJ, Dietz WH. Long-term morbidity and mortality of overweight adolescents. A follow-up of the Harvard Growth Study of 1922 to 1935. NEJM 1992;327:1350-1355.

[6] Shina R, Fisch G, Teague B. Tamborlane, et al. Prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance among children and adolescents with marked obesity. NEJM 2002;346:802-10.

[7] Pinhas-Hamiel O, Dolan LM, Daniels SR, Standford D, Khoury PR, Zeitler P. Increased incidence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus among adolescents. J Pediatr. 1996;128:608-615.

[8] Richards GE, Cavallo A, Meyer WJ. Obesity, acanthosis nigricans, insulin resistance, and hyperandrogenemia: pediatric perspective and natural history. J Pediatr. 1985;107:893-897.

[9] Steinberger J, Morehead C, Katch V, Rocchini AP. The relationship between insulin resistance and abnormal lipid profile in obese adolescents. J. Pediatrics 1995;126(69):6910-15.

[10] Becque MD, Katch VL, Rocchini AP, Marks CR, Moorehead C. Coronary risk incidence of obese adolescents: reduction by exercise plus diet intervention. Pediatrics 1988;81(5):605-12.

[11] Boxer GH, Bauer AM, Miller BD. Obesity-hypoventilation syndrome in childhood. J Am Acad Child Psychiatry 1988;27:552-558.

[12] Mallory GB, Fiser DH, Jackson R. Sleep-associated breathing disorders in obese children and adolescents. J Pediatr. 1989;115:892-897.

[13] Silvestri JM, Weese-Mayer DE, Bass MT, Kenny AS, Hauptman SA, Pearsall SM. Polysomnography in obese children with a history of sleep-associated breathing disorders. Pediatr Pulmonol. 1993;16:124-129.

[14] Dietz WH, Gross WC, Kirkpatrick JA, Jr,. Blount disease (tibia vara): Another skeletal disorder associated with childhood obesity. J Pediatr. 1982;101:735-737.

[15] Loder RT, Aronson DD, Greenfield ML. The epidemiology of bilateral slipped capital femoral epiphysis. A study of children in Michigan. J Bone Joint Surg. 1993;75:1141-1147.

[16] Rashid M, Roberts EA. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in children. J Pediatr Gastro Nutr. 2000;30:48-53.

[17] Clarke WR, Woolson RF, Lauer RM. Changes in ponderosity and blood pressure in childhood: the Muscatine Study. Am J Epidemiol. 1986;124:195-206.

[18] Abraham S, Nordsieck M. Relationship of excess weight in children and adults. Public Health Rep.

[19] Abraham S, Nordsieck M. Relationship of child weight status to morbidity in adults. Public Health Rep. 1970;86:273-284.

[20] Guo SS, Wu W, Chumlea WC, Roche AF. Predicting overweight and obesity in adulthood from body mass index values in childhood and adolescence. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;76:653–8.

[21] CDC.  Frequently asked questions about calculating obesity-related risk.  Accessed 23 January 2007.

[22] Krebs NF, Jacobson MS; American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Nutrition. Prevention of pediatric overweight and obesity. Pediatrics. 2003 Aug;112(2):424-30.

[23] Anderson RE, Crespo CJ, Bartlett SJ, Cheskin LJ, Pratt M. Relationship of physical activity and television watching with body weight and level of fatness among children: results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. JAMA.1998; 279 :938 –942

[24] Newbold, R.  Overview of clinical perspectives and mechanisms of obesitySpring Symposium, Obesity: developmental origins and environmental influences,20 February 2004, Duke University.  Available at:  Accessed 20 June 2006.

[25] Hood E. Sharing solutions for childhood obesity. Environ Health Perspect. 2005 Aug;113(8):A520-2.

[26] Heindel JJ. Endocrine disruptors and the obesity epidemic. Toxicol Sci. 2003 Dec;76(2):247-9.

[27] Hood, 2005.

Written and compiled by Kyla Boyse, R.N.  Reviewed by faculty and staff at the University of Michigan

Updated February 2007

U-M Health System Related Sites:
U-M Pediatrics

Back to top