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Gun Safety for Kids and Youth


[1] National Safety Council. Injury Facts, 2002 Edition. p. 127.

[2] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Non-fatal and fatal firearm-related injuries—United States 1993-1997. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1999; 48:1029-1084. Available from URL: Accessed 12/1/08.

[3] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Rates of homicide, suicide, and firearm-related deaths among children in 26 industrialized countries. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1997; 46 101 –105

[4] Miller, M, Azrael, D and Hemenway, D. Firearm availability and unintentional firearm deaths. Accident Analysis & Prevention 2001; 33:477-484.

[5] Grossman DC, Reay DT, Baker SA. Self-inflicted and unintentional firearm injuries among children and adolescents: the source of the firearm. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med . 1999; 153:875-8.

[6] Schuster MA, Franke TM, Bastian AM, Sor S, and Halfon N. Firearm storage patterns in U.S. homes with children. American Journal of Public Health. 2000; 90 :588-594.

[7] Johnson RM, Miller M, Vriniotis M, Azrael D, Hemenway D. Are household firearms stored less safely in homes with adolescents?: Analysis of a national random sample of parents.  Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2006 Aug;160(8):788-92.

[8] Committee on Adolescents. American Academy of Pediatrics. Pediatrics. Suicide and suicide attempts in adolescents. 2000 Apr;105(4 Pt 1):871-4.

[9] Hardy MS, Armstrong FD, Martin BL, Strawn KN. A firearm safety program for children: they just can't say no. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 1996; 17 :216 –221

[10] Connor SM and Wesolowski KL. "They're too smart for that": predicting what children would do in the presence of guns. (Electronic article.) Pediatrics 2000; 111 :e109-e114

[11] Jackman GA, Farah MM, Kellerman AL, Simon HK. Seeing is believing: what do boys do when they find a real gun? Pediatrics 2001; 107 :1247 –1250

[12] Hardy MS. Teaching firearm safety to children: failure of a program. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2002; 23 :71 –76

[13] Grossman DC, Mueller BA, Riedy C, Dowd MD, Villaveces A, Prodzinski J, Nakagawara J, Howard J, Thiersch N, Harruff R. Gun storage practices and risk of youth suicide and unintentional firearm injuries.  JAMA. 2005 Feb 9;293(6):707-14.

[14] Damore DT, Ramundo ML, Hanna JP, Dayan PS. Parental attitudes toward BB and pellet guns. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2000; 39:281-4.

[15] Laraque D; American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Injury, Violence, and
Poison Prevention. Injury risk of nonpowder guns.  Pediatrics. 2004 Nov;114(5):1357-61.

[D16 Greven CM, Bashinsky AL. Circumstance and outcome of ocular paintball injuries.  Am J Ophthalmol. 2006 Feb;141(2):393.

[17] Kennedy EA, Ng TP, Duma SM. Evaluating eye injury risk of Airsoft pellet guns by parametric risk functions.  Biomed Sci Instrum. 2006;42:7-12.

[18] Listman DA. Paintball injuries in children: more than meets the eye.  Pediatrics. 2004 Jan;113(1 Pt 1):e15-8.

Written and compiled by Kyla Boyse, R.N.  Reviewed by faculty and staff at the University of Michigan

Updated November 2009

U-M Health System Related Sites:
U-M Pediatrics

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