prospective, masked, randomized trial on 3117 neonates at one hospital
in Kenya rotated, on a weekly basis, between 2.5% povidone-iodine drops,
0.5% erythromycin ointment, and 1% silver nitrate drops for neonatal
up was by self report of mothers who were taught the symptoms of conjunctivitis.
The eyes of these infants were swabbed and sent for culture.
analysis found that use of povidone-iodine led overall to fewer neonatal
eye infections, 13.1% (including C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae, S.
aureus, coag-negative staphylococci, and Gram-negative bacteria) than
silver nitrate (17.5%, P<0.001), and erythromycin (15.2%, P=0.001).
resulted in fewer cases of non-bacterial conjunctivitis (9.7%) than
silver nitrate (13.9%, P<0.001), or erythromycin (13.3%, P=0.004).