- Pacifier introduction was at a median of 7 days for the early group
and 28 days for the late group. Almost all families had introduced the
pacifier at 6 weeks. No data given for the percentage of cross-over
pacifier users in the early and late pacifier groups. Data analyzed
in intention-to-treat analysis.
- No biological basis established for pacifier use and decreased breastfeeding
duration. Pacifier use may be a marker for differing attitudes and commitment
regarding breast-feeding or differences in the babys temperament.
- There are very few detrimental effects of delaying pacifier introduction.
It is important to teach parents alternative soothing techniques. Supplemental
feedings cannot always be avoided, but we should try to limit to those
that are medically necessary.
- Study participants fairly homogeneous (white, middle-class). The study
may not be applicable to pre-term or high risk infants.
CR, Howard FM, Lanphear B, Eberly S, deBlieck EA, Oakes D, Lawrence
RA. Randomized clinical trial of pacifier use and bottle-feeding or
cupfeeding and their effect on breastfeeding. Pediatrics 2003;111(3):
G, Schwarz U, Tonz O. UNICEF/WHO baby-friendly hospital initiative:
does the use of bottles and pacifiers in the neonatal nursery prevent
successful breastfeeding? European Journal of Pediatrics 1997;156:
MS, Barr RG, Dagenais S, Yang H, Jones P, Ciofani L, Jane F. Pacifier
use, early weaning, and cry/fuss behavior. JAMA 2001;286(3):
CG, Tomasi E, Olinto MTA, Barros FC. Use of pacifiers and breastfeeding
duration. Lancet 1993;341:404-6
CG, Behague DP, Barros FC, Olinto MTA, Weiderpass E. Pacifier use and
short breastfeeding duration: cause, consequence, or coincidence? Pediatrics
CR, Howard FM, Lanphear B, deBlieck EA, Eberly S, Lawrence RA. The effects
of early pacifier use on breastfeeding duration. Pediatrics 1999;103(3):e33.
- Aarts C.,
Hornell A, Kylberg E, Hofvander Y, Gebre-Medhin M. Breastfeeding patterns
in relation to thumb sucking and pacifier use. Pediatrics 1999;104(4)e50.
- Vogel A,
Hutchison B., Mitchell EA. The impact of pacifier use on breastfeeding:
a prospective cohort study. Journal Paediatric Child Health 2001;37:58-63.