retrospective, historical comparison study1 was performed
on 101 neonates < 30 weeks' gestation admitted to two Level III NICUs
over a one-year period before (Era 1) or after (Era 2) June 2004.
36 neonates admitted during Era 1 who had undergone NCPAP therapy within
96 hours of birth formed the "historical control" group.
65 neonates admitted during Era 2 who had undergone HFNC therapy within
96 hours of birth formed the comparison group.
criteria included major congenital malformations, chromosomal abnormalities,
and genetic syndromes.
characteristics of infants were not found to differ between groups with
respect to gestational age, birth weight, sex, race, maternal betamethasone
administration, mode of delivery, surfactant administration, initial
mode of respiratory support, and time to extubation if mechanical ventilation
was used first.
was no significant difference between groups in rates of death (p=1),
pneumothorax (p=1), IVH > Grade II (p=0.66), PDA (p=0.79), NEC (p=0.53),
BPD (p=0.47), infection (p=0.82), or ROP (p=0.26).
was a significant difference between groups in rate of (re)intubation
(p=0.03) with over twice the rate of intubation among infants in the
NCPAP group (40%) as in the HFNC group (18%).