In Vivo Studies Core
Clinical Gastrointestinal Physiological Laboratory
Major equipment and supplies for human studies will be provided by the Clinical Gastrointestinal Physiological Laboratory which is located in Room B370 Medical Procedures Unit in the Main Hospital. The laboratory area approximates 1,000 square feet and is equipped for measurements of motility of the GI tract, gastric pacemaker activities, evoked corticol and spinal potentials, gastric acid, pancreatic enzymes, pancreatic bicarbonate, bile acids, electrolytes, perfusion markers (PEG-4000, C14-PEG, etc.) and breath H2 concentration. Available equipment includes: automatic titration system (Radiometer), spectrophotometer, 8 channel motility recorder and accessories (Gould), electronic barostat, apparatus for monitoring gas movement in the GI tract, electrogastrography, Caldwell Spectrum 32 Reading Station, Quintron H2 Gas Chromatograph system, refrigerated centrifuge, gamma counter, liquid scintillation counter, microscope, Konigsberg triple procedure probe (for esophageal manometrics and pH testing), freezers and refrigerators and an IBM AT computer. The Clinical Gastrointestinal Physiological Laboratory is currently staffed by three full-time technicians, among these, one technician is assigned to assist Cejter investigators in the performance of human studies.
Clinical Research Center
All gastrointestinal incubation and perfusion studies, all clinical motility investigations and most visceral blood flow investigations will be performed in the Clinical Research Center. The Clinical Research Center is supported by the National Institutes of Health, GCRC Program (M01 RR0042-21-25). The Clinical Research Center is located in the Main Hospital in a net area of 11,000 square feet and comprises of 18 beds for inpatient and outpatient studies, a metabolic kitchen, supporting laboratories and comprehensive nursing care. In addition, it also has a CLINFO data management and analysis system, which provides computer support to all clinical Investigators, associated with the center. All endoscopies for clinical and research purposes will be performed at the Medical Procedures Unit at the main hospital. It has 10 endoscopic examination rooms, a 20-bed recovery room and a 40 patient waiting room.
Isotope Imaging Studies
Isotope imaging studies will be performed in the Nuclear Medicine Unit located at the main hospital. It is well equipped to perform the most sophisticated clinical and basic scientific research. Equipment available for use in the clinical facilities for imaging includes 2 portable imaging cameras, 2 wide field-of-view cameras, 1 GE Jumbo Camera, 1 fluorescent scanner, 3 MDS computers, 2 GE Topographic imaging cameras and 2 video imagers.
Facilities exist for studies involving the use of duplex ultrasonography in the Vascular Diagnostic Laboratory located on the second floor of the Taubman Center under the supervision of the Department of Surgery. The Diagnostic Vascular Laboratory is composed of 4 rooms with a total net area of 600 square feet. There is one Disonic Scanner equipped with a 3.5 and 7.5 mega Hertz probe dedicated to research studies. Dr. Mulholland will supervise all research studies using duplex ultrasonography. The Disonic Scanner is fully portable and can be moved to the Clinical Research Center or to the animal laboratories when required.
Evoked Cortical and Spinal Potential Studies
Evoked potential studies will be performed in collaboration with the Department of Neurology. Cortical (Cz) and spinal (L3, L5, S2) evoked potential measurements can be obtained in response to electrical or mechanical visceral stimulation (2,3). Electrical stimulation is provided by a pulse generator which delivers square wave impulses (0.5 ms duration at random frequencies (range 0.01 Hz-1.00 Hz)). Mechanical stimulation is provided by rapid visceral balloon distention. The delivery of electrical or mechanical stimulation activates an EEG reading station (Caldwell Spectrum 32 Reading Station, Caldwell Laboratories Inc, Kennenick, WA) which records any evoked potential activity. Equipment for these studies is housed on the first floor of the University Hospital in the EEG Laboratory of the Department of Neurology.
Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
A PET facility including two whole body PET scanners is located in the Division of Nuclear Medicine. A Siemens 931/08/12 PET scanner installed 2/88, is a whole body, 15-slice scanner located in the Adult General Hospital. This scanner has in-plane resolution of 5.5-6.0 mm FWHM and is currently fully operational and in daily use for clinical and research PET scans. A Siemens ECAT Exact (ECAT 921) scanner, installed 1/93, also is located the Adult General Hospital. This scanner provides 47 slices at twice the axial sampling density, has 50% greater axial coverage, and improved axial resolution (5.0 mm) with 20% greater sensitivity. Facilities may be available for use by investigators following review by the internal PET executive committee.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)
MRI scanning images are acquired using a 3.0 T Bruker MedSpec S300 system (Bruker, Kalsrube, Germany) with a quadrature head coil. The subjects’ heads are immobilized with a vacuum-beam pad in the scanner. Functional data are acquired with a T2*-weighted gradient-echo EPI using BOLD contrast (TR/TE/0=2000 ms/50 ms/90˚, slice thickness = 5 mm, interslice interval = 1 mm, Filed of view (FOV) = 250 mm, 64 x 64 x 20 matrix, whole brain coverage). For each slice, 90 images are acquired for every session. The first five images (dummy images) of each session are discarded from the analysis to eliminate possible non-equilibrium effects of magnetization. The anatomical image is acquired using a high-resolution T1-weighted, 3D gradient-echo pulse sequence [modified driven equilibrium Fourier transform (MDEFT); TR/TE/TI = 88.1 ms/4.12 ms/650 ms, 128 x 128 x 128 matrix, FOV = 250 mm]. The MRI scanner is housed in the basement floor (Department of Radiology) of the University Hospital and Dr. Thomas Morrow, an In Vivo Studies Core has direct access to the use of the MRI scanner.