Anatomy Tables - Pelvis & Pelvic Viscera


Bone Structure Description Notes
pubis (TG6-03, TG6-03) an angulated bone the forms the anterior part of the pelvis one of three bones that form the os coxae: ilium, ischium, pubis; its body forms 1/5 of the acetabulum; its symphyseal surface unites with the pubis of the opposite side to form the pubic symphysis; the superior and inferior pubic rami participate in the formation of the obturator foramen
inferior ramus inferior "limb" that passes inferolaterally from the pubic symphysis articulates with the ischial ramus to form the ischiopubic ramus; attachment site for the root of the penis (clitoris) (Latin, ramus = a branch)
ischium (TG3-04)   the "V"- shaped bone that forms the posteroinferior part of the pelvis one of the three bones that form the os coxae: ilium, ischium, pubis
  ischial ramus the limb of the ischium that passes anteriorly and superomedially toward the pubis it articulates with the inferior ramus of the pubis (together known as the Ischiopubic ramus)
ischial tuberosity the roughened projection that protrudes posteroinferiorly from the body of the ischium it is the site of attachment of the sacrotuberous ligament; it is the site of origin of the inferior gemellus m., quadratus femoris m. and the hamstring mm. (semitendinosus, semimembranosus, long head of biceps femoris, ischiocondylar portion of the adductor magnus)
pubic symphysis (N248, TG5-03) the midline joint uniting the superior rami of the two pubic bones a symphysis; a fibrocartilage interpubic disk unites the bones; the subpubic angle (at the pubic arch) in the female is greater than the subpubic angle in the male (Greek, symphysis = a growing together)
coccyx (N248, TG5-03) the most inferior portion of the vertebral column the coccyx results from the fusion of the four coccygeal vertebrae; it may be a single bone or the first coccygeal vertebra may be separated from the other three; it articulates with the fifth sacral segment; coccygeal vertebrae are reduced in complexity, having no pedicles, laminae or spines (Latin, coccyx = a crow's beak)


Muscle Origin Insertion Action Innervation Artery Notes Image
sphincter urethrae, in female (N361, TG6-08,N366, TG6-10,N385) encircles the urethra encircles urethra and vagina; extends superiorly along the urethra as far as the inferior surface of the bladder compresses urethra and vagina deep branch of perineal nerve from pudendal nerve internal pudendal a. skeletal muscle (Greek, sphincter = that which binds tight)
sphincter urethrae, in male (N361, TG6-08, N366, TG6-10, N385) encircles the urethra encircles urethra, reaches lateral surface of prostate and inferior bladder compresses urethra deep branch of perineal nerve from pudendal nerve internal pudendal a. skeletal muscle (Greek, sphincter = that which binds tight)


Organ/Part of Organ Location/Description Notes
ductus deferens (N361, TG6-31, N384, TG6-10, N387, TG6-31) duct of the testis ductus deferens is continuous with the tail of the epididymis; it passes through the superficial inguinal ring, inguinal canal and deep inguinal ring to reach the posteroinferior surface of the bladder where it joins with the duct of the seminal vesicle to form the ejaculatory duct (Latin, ductus = to lead + deferens = to carry away)
ampulla of the ductus deferens (N384, TG6-10) dilated part of the ductus deferens located posterior to the bladder ampulla of the ductus deferens joins with the duct of the seminal vesical to form the ejaculatory duct (Latin, ampulla = a flask or the dilated part of a duct or channel; ductus = to lead + deferens = to carry away)
ampulla of the uterine tube (N371, TG6-08, TG6-11, TG6-12) widest and longest part of the uterine tube ampulla of the uterine tube arches over the ovary and ends laterally in the infundibulum (Latin, ampulla = a flask or the dilated part of a duct or channel)
anal canal (N393, TG6-16) terminal end of the digestive tract anal canal is continuous with the rectum above and opens at the anus below; it is regulated by external and internal anal sphincters
anal columns (N393, TG6-16) longitudinal folds of mucosa on the inner wall of the anal canal anal columns are connected inferiorly by anal valves; rectal vessels lie beneath the submucosa of the anal columns
anal valves (N393, TG6-16) folds of mucosa joining adjacent anal columns at their inferior ends anal valves can be difficult to locate in the older individual
bladder, urinary (TG6-08, TG6-08) hollow muscular organ posterior to the pubic symphysis and body of the pubis that acts as a reservoir for urine urinary bladder is held in place by the pubovesical/puboprostatic ligaments; ureters enter the posterolateral surface of the bladder at the posterior two angles of the vesical trigone
body of the uterus (N371, TG6-08, TG6-11, TG6-12) part of the uterus from the fundus and the isthmus the uterine cavity is thin anteroposteriorly and wide in the transverse plane
cervix (N371, TG6-11, TG6-12) narrowed inferior end of the uterus cervix is inferior to the isthmus of the uterus and projects into the vagina; it is surrounded by the vaginal fornices (anterior, posterior and lateral) (Latin, cervix = neck)
clitoris (N377, TG6-25) combination of 3 erectile bodies: glans clitoris and 2 corpora cavernosa clitoris clitoris is covered by smooth skin
corona of the glans (N382) margin of the glans projecting beyond the ends of the corpora cavernosa overhangs the neck of the glans that separates the body from the glans of the penis
ejaculatory duct (N384, TG6-10) duct formed by the union of the duct of the seminal vesicle and the ampulla of the ductus deferens ejaculatory duct passes through the prostate gland to empty onto the seminal colliculus along the urethral crest in the prostatic urethra
epididymis (N390, TG5-10, TG6-31, TG6-32) beginning of the duct system of the testis the head of the epididymis is located on the superior surface of the testis and receives sperm from the efferent ductules; the body of the epididymis lies posterolateral to the testis and is separated from the testis by the sinus of the epididymis; the tail of the epididymis is located inferiorly and is continuous with the ductus deferens; the ductus deferens ascends to pass through the abdominal wall via the inguinal canal (Greek, epididymis = covering the testicle)
external urethral meatus (orifice) (N377, TG6-25) slitlike opening of the spongy urethra near the tip of the glans
fimbria of the uterine tube (N371, TG6-08, TG6-11, TG6-12) finger-like projections surrounding the opening into the uterine tube fimbria spread over the medial surface of the ovary; the ovarian fimbria is an extra long fimbria that attaches to the ovary (Latin, fimbria = fringe)
frenulum (N377, TG6-25) a more posterior or deeper part of the labia minora passing posterior to the clitoris (Latin, frenulum = bridle, a narrow reflection of membrane from the lower surface of the glands with the prepuce)
fundus of the uterus (N371, TG6-11, TG6-12) the rounded anterosuperior part of the uterus fundus of the uterus is defined as that portion of the uterus located superior to an imaginary line joining the points of entry of the uterine tubes; the uterus is normally anteverted and anteflexed, so the fundus normally points anterosuperiorly (Latin, fundus = bottom)
glans penis/clitoridis (N377, TG6-25, N382) expanded distal end of the corpus spongiosum which caps the ends of the corpora cavernosa the fossa navicularis is an expanded portion of the penile urethra that occurs in the glans (Latin, glans = acorn)
hymen thin, usually incomplete septum at the inferior vaginal orifice the hymen is the remnant of the urogenital septum of the embryo, and the hymeneal caruncles are remnants of the hymen (Greek, hymen = a membrane)
infundibulum of the uterine tube (N371, TG6-08, TG6-11, TG6-12) funnel-shaped distal end of the uterine tube fimbria are attached to the margin of the infundibulum (Latin, infundibulum = a funnel)
interureteric ridge (N366, TG6-10) mucosal fold on the inner posterior wall of the bladder connecting the paired ureteric orifices interureteric ridge is the superior boundary of the vesical trigone
isthmus of the uterine tube (N371, TG6-08, TG6-11, TG6-12) constricted part of the uterine tube that is adjacent to the uterus isthmus of the uterine tube is the narrowest part
isthmus of the uterus (N371, TG6-11, TG6-12) constricted part of the uterus between the body and the cervix isthmus of the uterus is about 1 cm in length and its cavity enters into the internal cervical os
labia majora (N377, TG6-25) fat-filled elevations of hair-covered skin lying on either side of the vestibule of the vagina labia majora are joined across the midline by the anterior and posterior labial commissures; they blend into each other anteriorly to form the mons pubis (Latin, labia = lips)
labia minora (N377, TG6-25) paired folds of hairless skin located medial to the labia majora and extending posteroinferiorly from the clitoris the anterior end of each labium minus divides: the anterior division of each labium forms the prepuce of the clitoris and the posterior division of each labium forms the frenulum of the clitoris (Latin, labia = lips)
ligamentum teres uteri (N362, TG6-07, TG6-13, N369) also known as: round ligament of the uterus (Latin, teres = round)
mons pubis (N377, TG6-25) rounded, fatty prominence anterior to the pubic symphysis (Latin, mons = mountain)
ovarian ligament (N371, TG6-08, TG6-11, TG6-12) a band of connective tissue that connects the ovary to the lateral surface of the uterus a remnant of the gubernaculum; it is continuous with the round ligament of the uterus at the lateral surface of the uterus; ovarian ligament lies within the mesovarium; also known as: proper ovarian ligament
ovary (N371, TG6-08, TG6-11, TG6-12) female gonad that lies in the ovarian fossa within the true pelvis in contact with the fimbria of the uterine tube ovary is both an endocrine and an exocrine gland; it is held in place by the ovarian ligament, mesovarium, and suspensory ligament of the ovary
pectinate line (N393, TG6-16) an irregular line joining the undersides of the anal valves pectinate line is where the mucosal lining of the digestive tract becomes continuous with the skin of the anal aperture
posterior fornix of the vagina (TG6-12) space within the vaginal canal posterior to the cervix an incision made superiorly through posterior fornix will enter the rectouterine pouch of the peritoneal cavity (Latin, fornix = arch or vault)
prepuce (N377, TG6-25) fold of smooth skin extending over the glans penis/clitoris the anterior divisions of the labia minora combine to form the prepuce of the clitoris (Latin, praeputium = foreskin)
prostate (N384, TG6-10) exocrine gland located inferior to the urinary bladder and superior to the urogenital diaphragm multiple small ducts drain into the prostatic urethra as it passes through the prostate; subject to benign and malignant enlargement, which may compromise micturition due to projection of the uvula into the bladder (Greek, prostate = one stand before, this gland stands before the bladder)
prostatic utricle (N384, TG6-10) a small blind diverticulum in the posterior wall of the prostatic urethra on the summit of the seminal colliculus prostatic utricle is a remnant of the fused lower ends of the paramesonephric ducts - the fused paramesonephric ducts form the uterine canal in the female (Latin, utriculus = little leather bag)
rectum (TG6-08, TG6-08) distal end of the colon rectum begins at about the S3 vertebral level; it is continuous distally with the anal canal
round ligament of the uterus (N362, TG6-07, TG6-13, N369) a connective tissue band that attaches to the inner aspect of the labium majus and the uterus round ligament of the uterus traverses the superficial inguinal ring, inguinal canal and deep inguinal ring to reach the lateral surface of the uterus below the uterine tube; it is a remnant of the gubernaculum; it is continuous with the ovarian ligament; it holds the fundus of the uterus forward; also known as: ligamentum teres uteri
scrotal raphe (N387, TG6-31,N390) the midline, bilateral embryonic formation of the scrotum (Greek, raphe = a seam or suture)
scrotum (N387, TG6-31,N390) sac of hair-covered skin containing the testis in the scrotum the fatty and membranous layers of the superficial fascia (as seen in the lower abdominal wall) are fused to form the tunica dartos scroti
seminal colliculus (N384, TG6-10) elevation on the posterior wall of the prostatic urethra the seminal colliculus is a mound in the posterior wall of the prostatic urethra; on its summit is found the opening of the prostatic utricle (Latin, colliculus = mound)
seminal vesicle (N384, TG6-10) blind sac located on the posterior surface of the bladder lateral to the ampulla of the ductus deferens seminal vesicle produces seminal fluid; its duct joins with the ampulla of the ductus deferens to form the ejaculatory duct
seminiferous tubules (N390, TG5-10, TG6-31, TG6-32) convoluted tubules of the testis in which sperm are produced drain via efferent ductules into the head of the epididymis
spermatic cord (N387, TG6-31) bundle of vessels, nerves and lymphatics ensheathed in tissue layers derived from the abdominal wall; it begins at the deep inguinal ring, passes through the inguinal canal and the superficial ring to reach the testis in the scrotum spermatic cord comprises the: ductus deferens, testicular a., pampiniform plexus, deferential a. & v. and genital br. of the genitofemoral n.; coverings of the cord are the: internal spermatic fascia (from the transversalis fascia), cremasteric muscle and fascia (from the internal abdominal oblique), external spermatic fascia (from the external abdominal oblique aponeurosis)
suspensory ligament of the ovary (N371, N400, TG6-11, TG6-12) peritoneal fold overlying the ovarian vessels as they cross the pelvic brim to reach the ovary continuous with the broad ligament at the ovary
testis (N390, TG5-10, TG6-31, TG6-32) an endocrine and exocrine gland contained within the scrotum testis is the male gonad; its exocrine product is sperm which drain to the head of the epididymis via efferent ductules; its endocrine product is testosterone; the testis migrates into the scrotum shortly before birth; it is tethered to the scrotum inferiorly by the scrotal ligament (a remnant of the gubernaculum)
tunica albuginea, testis (N390, TG5-10, TG6-31, TG6-32) outer white fibrous covering of the testis tunica albuginea is a dense connective tissue capsule that is covered on its external surface by the visceral layer of the tunica vaginalis testis (Latin, tunica albuginea = white membrane, covering)
urachus (N363, TG6-07) joins the apex of the fetal bladder to the umbilicus after birth, the urachus becomes a remnant called the median umbilical ligament (Greek, urachus/ourachos = the urinary canal of a fetus)
ureteric orifices (N366, TG6-10) openings of the ureters in the bladder wall
urethra (NN366, TG6-10, N378, TG6-10, N385) duct that drains the urinary bladder urethra has three parts in the male: prostatic, membranous & penile/spongy; female urethra is much shorter than the male urethra, consisting of the membranous part only
urethra, membranous (N385) part of the urethra that passes through the urogenital diaphragm (sphincter urethrae muscle and perineal membrane) female: membranous urethra connects the urinary bladder to the external urethral orifice at the vestibule of the vagina; male: membranous urethra connects the prostatic urethra with the spongy/penile urethra
urethra, penile (N385) part of the urethra contained within the bulb and the corpus spongiosum of the penis longest part of male urethra; penile urethra has a dilation in the region of the glans called the navicular fossa; also known as: spongy urethra
urethra, prostatic (N385) part of the male urethra passing through the prostate gland prostatic urethra begins at the internal urethral orifice at the anteroinferior angle of the vesical trigone; posterior wall of the urethra has an elevated ridge called the urethral crest with a prominence called the seminal colliculus (veru montanum); seminal colliculus has a blind diverticulum called the prostatic utricle with orifices of ejaculatory ducts located below it
ureter muscular tube that serves as the duct of the kidney to carry urine to the bladder ureter is continuous proximally with the renal pelvis; it passes over the pelvic brim medial to the testicular/ovarian vessels; it passes obliquely through the posterior wall of the urinary bladder and drains at the posterolateral angle of the vesical trigone
uterine tube (N371, TG6-08, TG6-11, TG6-12) the duct of the ovary; it extends from the ovary to the uterus uterine tube has four named parts: infundibulum is the funnel shaped opening - fimbria encircle this opening; ampulla is a dilated region that connects the infundibulum with the isthmus; isthmus is the constricted part nearest the uterus; intramural part is within the uterine wall
uterus (N371, TG6-08, TG6-11, TG6-12) hollow muscular organ within which the fertilized ovum develops; normally lies anteverted posterosuperior to the bladder uterus is anteflexed (curved anteroinferiorly) at the uterine isthmus; the fundus is the part superior to the entrance of the uterine tubes and it normally lies anterosuperiorly; the body meets the cervix at a constricted area called the isthmus; the cervix projects into the vagina
uvula of the bladder (N366, TG6-10) elevation of the inner bladder wall posterosuperior to the internal urethral orifice uvula is caused by the middle lobe of the prostate gland; if the prostate becomes enlarged (either benign hypertrophy or malignancy) the uvula can constrict the internal urethral orifice and cause difficulty in voiding the bladder; only found in males
vagina (N377, TG6-25) part of the female genital canal located between the vestibule and the cervix vaginal fornices surround the cervix; the word "vagina" is derived from the Latin word for sheath
vesical trigone (N366, TG6-10) smooth triangular region located on the inner surface of the posterior wall of the urinary bladder vesical trigone is bounded by the openings of the ureters (2) superolaterally, the interureteric ridge between the openings of the ureters and the internal urethral orifice inferiorly (Greek, trigone = triangle)
vestibule of the vagina (N377, TG6-25) region inferior to the hymen/hymeneal caruncles and between the labia minora vestibule of the vagina contains the external urethral orifice, the opening of the vagina and the openings of the greater vestibular glands
vulva (N377, TG6-25) serves as sensory and erectile tissue for sexual intercourse and arousal, directs the flow of urine, prevents entry of foreign material into the urogenital tract clinically called the pudendum


Artery Source Branches Supply to Notes
testicular artery (N390, TG5-10, TG6-31, TG6-32) aorta testis and epididymis
uterine (N400, 402,404, TG6-11, TG6-17) internal iliac a., anterior division tubal br., vaginal br. uterus, uterine tube uterine a. anastomoses with the ovarian a. and the vaginal a.; it passes superior to the ureter in the pelvis; remember the saying "water under the bridge"

Topographical Anatomy

Structure/Space Description/Boundaries Significance
anal triangle (N380, TG6-25) posterior subdivision of the diamond-shaped perineum; its boundaries are: anteriorly - posterior margin of the perineal membrane (corresponds to an imaginary line connecting the ischial tuberosities); posterolaterally - sacrotuberous ligament anal triangle is the location of the terminal end of the gastrointestinal tract (anus)
dorsum of the penis(N351, TG6-02) location of the deep vessels and the corpora cavernosa dorsal view is when penis is angled down
perineum (N380, TG6-25) a diamond-shaped space forming the outlet of the pelvis; its boundaries are: anterolaterally - inferior pubic ramus, ischial ramus and ischial tuberosity; posterolaterally - sacrotuberous ligament perineum is subdivided into the anal triangle and urogenital triangle by an imaginary line connecting the ischial tuberosities (peri + inan ("to empty out" in Greek))
rectouterine pouch (N360, TG6-08) in females, a peritoneal fold reflecting from the rectum to the posterior fornix of the vagina
rectovesical pouch (N361, TG6-31) in males, a peritoneal fold reflecting from the rectum to the posterior wall of the bladder in the male
vesicouterine pouch (N360, TG6-08) peritoneum reflected from the uterus onto the posterior margin of the superior surface of the bladder separates the uterus from the bladder
urogenital triangle (N380, TG6-25) anterior subdivision of the diamond-shaped perineum; its boundaries are: anterolaterally - inferior pubic ramus, ischial ramus; posteriorly - posterior margin of perineal membrane (corresponds to an imaginary line connecting the ischial tuberosities) urogenital triangle is the location of the terminal portion of the urinary tract and genital tract

Peritoneal Specializations and Associated Structures

Specialization Location/Description Notes
broad ligament (N371, TG6-08, TG6-11, TG6-12) peritoneal fold extending from the pelvic walls to the uterus and uterine tubes broad ligament has three named parts: mesovarium, mesosalpinx, mesometrium
mesometrium (N371, TG6-08, TG6-11, TG6-12) part of the broad ligament below the junction of the mesosalpinx and the mesovarium mesometrium attaches the body of the uterus to the pelvic wall
mesosalpinx (N371, TG6-08, TG6-11, TG6-12) part of broad ligament that supports the uterine tube mesosalpinx extends inferiorly to meet the root of the mesovarium; it attaches the uterine tube to the mesometrium (Greek, salpinx= trumpet, so-named for its resemblance to a trumpet)
mesovarium (N371, TG6-08, TG6-11, TG6-12) part of broad ligament that forms a shelf-like fold supporting the ovary mesovarium is located perpendicular to the plane of the mesosalpinx and mesometrium; it attaches the ovary to the mesometrium and mesosalpinx (Latin, ovarium = ovary)
rectouterine fold (N360, TG6-08) a peritoneal fold extending across the floor of the pelvic cavity from the sacrum (beside the rectum) to the uterus rectouterine fold contains the rectouterine ligament which is a condensation of endopelvic fascia that is important for support of the uterus
rectouterine ligament (N360, TG6-08) a condensation of extraperitoneal connective tissue & smooth muscle (rectouterine muscle) connecting the isthmus of the uterus to the sacrum rectouterine ligament is important for support of the uterus
tunica vaginalis testis (N387, TG6-31, N390) a peritoneal sac located anterolateral to the testis tunica vaginalis testis has two layers: visceral and parietal; the visceral layer lies on the anterolateral surface of the testis and epididymis; the parietal layer lines the inner surface of the scrotal sac; (Latin,vaginalis is derived from the word sheath, tunica = a coat)

Clinical Terms

Term Definition
hemorrhoids General: A varicose dilatation of a vein of the superior or inferior hemorrhoidal plexus, resulting from a persistent increase in venous pressure. Presents as a swelling formed by the dilation of the blood vessels around the margin of, or within, the anus, from which blood or mucus is occasionally discharged. (Greek, haimorrhos = veins likely to bleed)

External: hemorrhoids that occur below the dentate (also known as the pectinate) line and are generally painful. They are sometimes called skin tags, or can be seen or felt as extra skin around the anus. External hemorrhoids can become very distressing when the blood in the external hemorrhoid clots, and inflammation irritates the nearby pain-sensitive skin. This condition is called a thrombosed external hemorrhoid and is quite painful.

Internal: hemorrhoids that occur above the pectinate line in the anal canal which separates two types of anal skin. The skin above the pectinate line is not sensitive to pain. Internal hemorrhoids, being above the pectinate line, are therefore usually painless. They can cause bleeding or they may push out of (prolapse) the anal opening when they become quite large.

imperforate anus (anal atresia) a congenital obstruction of the anal opening. Occurs in approximately 1 in 5,000 infants. This condition is corrected through surgery.
sigmoidoscopy a procedure in which a scope is used to view the sigmoid flexure, a part of the colon that is shaped like the letter "s."
benign prostatic hypertrophy it is important to note that hypertrophy is the enlargement of existing cells whereas as hyperplasia is an increase in the number of normal cells. A benign enlargement of the prostate gland which begins normally after age 50, probably secondary to the effects of male hormones. If significant enlargement occurs, it may pinch off the urethra making urination difficult or impossible. The hyperplasia is typically periurethral.
trans-urethral prostatectomy (turp) the surgical removal of the prostate gland. Transurethral prostatectomy is performed through the urethral canal of the penis.
prostate cancer the second most common malignancy in men. A malignant tumor of glandular origin in the prostate. Over 95% are adenocarcinomas. Most commonly seen in older men, with the age of 73 being the average age at the time of diagnosis. A family history for prostate cancer and perhaps a diet that is high in fat are considered to be risk factors for this malignancy. Early detection is possible through annual digital rectal examinations and routine PSA testing. The cancer is typically at the periphery of the prostate (not periurethral like BPH).
cervical cancer cancer of the cervix of the uterus. Very highly correlated with HPV infection.
hysterectomy the operation of excising the uterus, performed either through the abdominal wall or through the vagina.
oophorectomy the removal of an ovary or ovaries.
ectopic pregnancy a gestation elsewhere than in the uterus. Often occurring in the uterine tube. Presents with abdominal pain, fainting, and/or vaginal bleeding.
STD infection resulting in infertility chlamydia is probably the STD most often associated with infertility. Gonorrhea is as well. Both can cause scarring and therefore infertility (e.g., ovarian tubes blocked, etc.). PID (Pelvic Inflammatory Disease) is a description of a disease process in the pelvis (just what is sounds like -- inflammation). It can be caused by Chlamydia as well as other STDs and some unknown anaerobic organisms. Most OB/Gyn people refer to the specific part of the viscera that is inflamed (e.g., salpingitis, endometritis, etc.) instead of the generic PID. However, many other clinicians (internists, ER docs) use the term PID.
hysterosalpingography radiography of the uterus and uterine tubes after the injection of a contrast medium.
prolapse of uterus falling down or sinking of the uterus; the cervix may protrude from the introitus.
cesarean (c-section) a surgical procedure that involves the delivery of the fetus through an abdominal incision. C-sections account for about 1/5 of all births in the US. Indications include: failure to progress, fetal distress, cephalopelvic disproportion (baby too big for birth canal), placenta previa, placental abruption, placental insufficiency, breech baby, active genital herpes, multiple gestation, preeclampsia and excessive scarring from previous surgeries. The average hospital stay is about 4 days. The maternal death rate with C-section is three times higher than with natural delivery.
menstrual pain lower abdominal and pelvic pain that is associated with menses. Recurrent monthly menstrual pains (not explained by other causes) are often referred to as primary dysmenorrhoea.
cystocele a condition where the bladder herniates into the vaginal canal and usually results in stress incontinence. (Greek, -cele = hernia)
colporrhaphy repair of a rupture of the vagina by suturing the edges of the tear.
laparotomy general term for abdominal surgery.
leiomyomas benign uterine tumors also referred to as uterine fibroids that can cause pelvic pain and bleeding in some females. (Greek, -oma = tumor or neoplasm)
enterocele a hernial protrusion of bowel through a defect in the rectouterine or vesicouterine pouch (Greek, -cele = hernia)
rectocele/proctocele prolapse or herniation of the rectum (Greek, -cele = hernia)

The material presented in these tables is contained in the book:
MedCharts Anatomy by Thomas R. Gest & Jaye Schlesinger
Published by ILOC, Inc., New York
Copyright © 1995, unauthorized use prohibited.
The excellent editorial assistance of
Dr. Pat Tank, UAMS
is gratefully acknowledged.