https://medvideo.umms.med.umich.edu/content/anatomy/anatserv Anatomy Tables - Scalp, Cranial Cavity, Meninges & Brain

 Anatomy Tables - Scalp, Cranial Cavity, Meninges & Brain

Osteology

Bone Structure Description
frontal
(N6, N9, TG7-07, TG7-08)
orbital plate forms the roof of the orbit
ethmoid
(N6, N9, TG7-07, TG7-08)
cribriform plate perforated for olfactory nerves
crista galli
(N6, N9, TG7-07, TG7-08)
superior projection into anterior cranial fossa which anchors falx cerebri anteriorly (Latin, crista galli = cock's comb)
foramen cecum
(N6, TG7-07)
near anterior end of crista galli; transmits an emissary vein (Latin, cecum = blind)
parietal
(N4, N7A, N7B, TG7-04, TG7-05A, TG7-05B, TG7-05C)
these paired bones form most of the calvaria or skullcap; they articulate at midline at the sagittal suture, anteriorly with frontal bone at coronal suture, posteriorly with occipital bone at lambdoidal suture, and inferiorly with: greater wing of sphenoid bone anteriorly at pterion, squamosal part of temporal bone at squamous suture, and mastoid part of temporal bone posteriorly at parietomastoid suture
parietal foramen
(N4, N7A, N7B, TG7-04, TG7-05A, TG7-05B, TG7-05C)
near sagittal suture posteriorly; transmits parietal emissary vein
granular fovea
(N7B, TG7-05C)
small pits in inner table for arachnoid granulations (Latin, fovea = a pit)
occipital
(N4, N6, TG7-04, TG7-08)
squamous part posterior to foramen magnum; articulates with petrous part of temporal bone inferiorly and parietal bones superiorly at lambdoidal suture
internal occipital protuberance
(N9, TG7-07)
midline projection on the internal aspect of the squamous part, lying at the center of the grooves marking the confluens of sinuses
basal part
(N9, TG7-07)
anterior to foramen magnum; articulates with body of sphenoid bone
foramen magnum
(N9, TG7-07)
large midline passage through occipital bone; marks the transition of medulla oblongata to spinal cord; also transmits the vertebral arteries, anterior and posterior spinal arteries, and the spinal accessory (XI) nerves
lateral part lateral to foramen magnum; pierced by hypoglossal & condylar canals
hypoglossal canal
(N11, TG7-07, TG7-08)
lies in the lateral part; transmits hypoglossal nerve
condylar canal lies in the lateral part; transmits emissary vein
occipital condyle paired; each projects inferiorly from lateral part; articulates with the atlas
temporal
(N9, TG7-07)
petrous part contains tympanic cavity & bony labyrinth
internal acoustic meatus
(N11, TG7-07, TG7-08)
on posterior surface of petrous part; transmits facial nerve, vestibulocochlear nerve, & labyrinthine artery
facial canal through petrous part; transmits facial nerve to stylomastoid foramen
carotid canal through petrous part; transmits internal carotid artery & internal carotid plexus of sympathetic nerves
squamous part flat & vertical; articulates with partietal & greater wing of sphenoid bone at squamosal suture
sphenoid body central part, containing sinuses (Greek, sphenoid = wedge-shaped)
optic canal
(N2, N11, TG7-07, TG7-57)
foramen at lateral end of chiasmatic sulcus, medial to anterior clinoid process; transmits optic nerve and ophthalmic artery
sella turcica
(N6, N9, TG7-07, TG7-08)
roughly equivalent to hypophyseal fossa (Latin, sella turcica = Turkish saddle)
anterior clinoid process at medial end of lesser wing of sphenoid; internal carotid artery passes medial (Greek, clinoid = resembles a bed)
posterior clinoid process at posterior edge of sella turcica (Greek, clinoid = resembles a bed)
lesser wing of sphenoid
(N6, N9, TG7-07, TG7-08)
forms posterior margin of anterior cranial fossa; articulates anteriorly with orbital plate of frontal bone (Greek, sphenoid = wedge-shaped)
greater wing of sphenoid
(N6, N9, TG7-07, TG7-08)
forms medial part of floor of middle cranial fossa, part of temporal fossa laterally, and posterior part of lateral wall of orbit; articulates anteriorly with zygomatic, superiorly with frontal & parietal bone (at pterion), posteriorly with squamous & petrous temporal bone (Greek, sphenoid = wedge-shaped)
superior orbital fissure
(N2, N11, TG7-07, TG7-57)
between lesser & greater wings of sphenoid; transmits oculomotor nerve, trochlear nerve, abducens nerve, branches of ophthalmic division of trigeminal nerve, superior ophthalmic vein, lymphatics
foramen rotundum
(N11, TG7-07)
through greater wing; transmits maxillary division of trigeminal nerve
foramen ovale
(N11, TG7-06, TG7-07)
through greater wing between foramen rotundum & foramen spinosum; transmits mandibular division of trigeminal nerve
foramen spinosum
(N11, TG7-06, TG7-07)
through greater wing; transmits middle meningeal artery
foramen lacerum
(N11, TG7-06, TG7-07)
where the anteromedial tip of the petrous temporal bone nearly contacts the body of the sphenoid bone; closed by cartilage in life; transmits greater and deep petrosal nerves
jugular foramen
(N11, TG7-07, TG7-08)
lies between the petrous temporal bone and the lateral part of the occipital bone; contains the jugular bulb; transmits glossopharyngeal (IX), vagus (X), and accessory (XI) nerves

Muscles

MuscleOriginInsertionActionInnervationBlood SupplyNotesImage
epicranius
(N24, TG7-30)
frontalis: galea aponeurotica; occipitalis: superior nuchal line frontalis: skin of the eyebrows; occipitalis: galea aponeurotica elevates the eyebrows and wrinkles the forehead frontalis: temporal branches of the facial nerve (VII); occipitalis: posterior auricular branch of the facial nerve (VII) frontalis: supraorbital and supratrochlear aa.; occipitalis: occipital a. the frontalis and occipitalis muscles are two bellies of the epicranius muscle; also known as: occipitofrontalis m.
frontalis
(N24, TG7-30)
galea aponeurotica skin of the eyebrow elevates the eyebrows and wrinkles the forehead temporal branches of the facial nerve (VII) supraorbital and supratrochlear aa. frontalis is the anterior belly of the epicranius muscle
occipitalis
(N24, TG7-29, TG7-30)
superior nuchal line galea aponeurotica pulls the scalp posteriorly; elevates the eyebrows posterior auricular branch of the facial nerve (VII) occipital a. occipitalis is the posterior belly of the epicranius muscle

Nerves

NerveSourceBranchesMotorSensoryNotes
olfactory n.
(N114, TG7-77AB, TG7-77C)
the filaments of the bipolar olfactory epithelial cells constitute the olfactory n. second order olfactory nerve cell bodies located in the olfactory bulb none smell (SVA) also known as: CN I, 1st cranial n.; multiple olfactory filaments pass through the cribriform plate to enter the anterior cranial fossa and synapse in the olfactory bulb; the olfactory tract carries the signal from the bulb to olfactory cortex of the forebrain
optic
(N114, TG7-78AB, TG7-78C)
ganglion layer of retina to forebrainvision (SSA)also known as: CN II, 2nd cranial nerve; course of optic nerve - through optic canal to optic chiasma, then optic tract to lateral geniculate body & optic radiation
oculomotor
(N114, TG7-79AB, TG7-79C, TG7-79D)
GSE: oculomotor nuclei of midbrain; GVE: accessory (Edinger-Westphal) nucleus (preganglionic parasympathetic)superior br., inferior br.superior br.: levator palpebrae superioris, superior rectus; inferior br: medial rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique; ciliary muscle & sphincter pupillae (GVE preganglionic parasympathetic to ciliary ganglion via parasympathetic root, postganglionic parasympathetic via short ciliary nn.)also known as: CN III, 3rd cranial nerve; passes through superior orbital fissure
trochlear
(N114, TG7-80AB, TG7-80C)
trochlear nucleus of midbrainsuperior oblique (GSE)also known as: CN IV, 4th cranial nerve; passes through superior orbital fissure; smallest cranial nerve, only cranial nerve to arise from dorsum of brainstem (Latin, trochlea = a pulley)
trigeminal
(N114, TG7-81AB, TG7-81C)
pons: trigeminal motor nucleus (SVE) to motor root; spinal trigeminal nucleus from trigeminal ganglion (GSA) via sensory rootophthalmic, maxillary & mandibular divisionsSVE: temporalis, masseter, lateral & medial pterygoid, anterior belly of digastric, mylohyoid, tensor veli palatini, tensor tympaniskin of face, nasal & oral cavities, ant. 2/3rds of tongue (GSA only)also known as: CN V, 5th cranial nerve; some brs. carry pre- or postganglionic parasympathetic fibers; divides into three divisions at trigeminal ganglion; SVE supplies muscles of branchial arch origin
abducens
(N114, TG7-86AB, TG7-86C)
pons: abducens nucleusGSE: lateral rectus m.also known as: CN VI, 6th cranial nerve; passes through the superior orbital fissure (Latin, abducens = to draw away)
facial
(N114, TG7-87AB, TG7-87C, TG7-88A, TG7-88B)
pons & medulla: nucleus solitarius of medulla via nervus intermedius (SVA sensory root) from geniculate ganglion; superior salivatory nucleus (GVE preganglionic parasympathetic) of pons via nervus intermedius, facial motor nucleus of pons via motor rootgreater petrosal (preganglionic parasympathetic to pterygopalatine ganglion, postganglionic parasympathetic travels with brs. of maxillary div. of V), chorda tympani (SVA taste from anterior 2/3rds of tongue; preganglionic parasympathetic to submandibular ganglion, postganglionic parasympathetic to submandibular & sublingual glands), n. to stapedius, posterior auricular, intraparotid plexus with temporal, zygomatic, buccal, marginal mandibular & cervical brs.stapedius, stylohyoid, posterior belly of digastric, muscles of facial expression; secretomotor to lacrimal, submandibular, sublingual, and mucous glands of nasal & oral cavitiestaste (SVA) from anterior 2/3rds of tongue; part of skin of external auditory meatusalso known as: CN VII, 7th cranial nerve; passes into internal acoustic meatus, goes through facial canal, exits at stylomastoid foramen
vestibulocochlear
(N114, TG7-89AB, TG7-89C)
pons & medulla: vestibular nuclei from vestibular ganglion of semicircular ducts; cochlear nuclei in inferior cerebellar peduncle from spiral ganglion of cochlea divides within the temporal bone into vestibular and cochlear parts vestibular: balance/proprioception (SSA); cochlear: hearing (SSA) also known as: CN VIII, 8th cranial nerve; auditory nerve; passes into internal auditory meatus
glossopharyngeal
(N114, TG7-90AB, TG7-90C, TG7-90D)
medulla: spinal trigeminal nucleus from superior ganglion (GVA); nucleus solitarius from inferior ganglion (SVA); nucleus ambiguus (GVA); inferior salivatory nucleus (GVE preganglionic parasympathetic) tympanic nerve to tympanic plexus & lesser petrosal n., carotid sinus n., stylopharyngeus brs., pharyngeal brs. GSE: stylopharyngeus; GVE: secretomotor to parotid gland (preganglionic parasympathetic via tympanic n. to lesser petrosal n. to otic ganglion, postganglionic parasympathetic via auriculotemporal n.) GVA: carotid body & sinus, pharynx, middle ear; GSA: skin of external ear; SVA: taste from posterior 1/3rd of tongue also known as: CN IX, 9th cranial nerve; passes through jugular foramen; may penetrate the stylopharyngeus m.
vagus
(N114, TG7-91AB, TG7-91C, TG7-92)
medulla: dorsal nucleus (GVA & GVE preganglionic parasympathetic) from inferior ganglion, nucleus ambiguus (SVE); spinal trigeminal nucleus (GSA) from superior ganglion; nucleus solitarius (SVA) from inferior ganglionauricular br., pharyngeal br., superior laryngeal, superior & inferior cervical cardiac brs., recurrent laryngeal, thoracic cardiac brs., brs. to pulmonary plexus, esophageal plexus, anterior & posterior vagal trunksSVE: intrinsic muscles of larynx, pharynx (except stylopharyngeus), & palate (except tensor veli palatini); GVE: smooth muscle of respiratory tree & gut (proximal to splenic flexure), heart; secretomotor: mucous glands of larynx, respiratory tree, pharynx & gut, digestive glandsGSA: skin of external auditory meatus; GVA: viscera of head, neck, thorax & abdomen proximal to splenic flexure; SVA: taste to epiglottisalso known as: CN X, 10th cranial nerve; passes through jugular foramen; (Latin,vagus = wanderer, because of its wide distribution to the body cavities)
accessory
(N114, TG7-93AB, TG7-93C)
cranial root: nucleus ambiguus; spinal root: spinal nucleus of upper cervical spinal cordcranial root joins vagus; spinal root ascends through foramen magnumGSE: sternocleidomastoid and trapezius mm.also known as: CN XI, 11th cranial nerve; passes through jugular foramen; accessory n. is motor only; proprioceptive fibers reach sternocleidomastoid via C2&C3 and trapezius via C3&C4 (subtrapezial plexus)
hypoglossal
(N114, TG7-94AB, TG7-94C)
medulla: hypoglossal nucleusbranches of C1&2 carried by this nerve are not considered to be branches of the hypoglossal nerveintrinsic and extrinsic muscles of the tongue (except palatoglossus m.)also known as: CN XII, 12th cranial nerve; passes through the hypoglossal canal; superior root of ansa cervicalis travels with the hypoglossal n.

Arteries

ArterySourceBranchesSupplyNotes
carotid, internal
(N139, N140, TG7-56A, TG7-56B, TG7-72)
common carotidnone in the neck; in the head: ophthalmic, post. communicating, ant. & middle cerebral (terminal brs.)brain, eye, foreheadprimary blood supply to the brain; anastomoses with vertebral aa.
anterior cerebral
(N139, N140, TG7-56A, TG7-56B, TG7-72)
internal carotid a. anterior communicating a., medial frontobasal a., polar frontal a., callosomarginal a., precuneal a. medial and inferior portions of the frontal lobe; medial side of the parietal lobe; corpus callosum and part of the limbic lobe; olfactory bulb and tract; optic nerve, optic chiasm and optic tract the anterior communicating a. unites the two anterior cerebral aa. across the midline
communicating, anterior
(N139, N140, TG7-56A, TG7-56B, TG7-72)
anterior cerebral a. perforating aa. an anastomotic connection anterior communicating a. is a short vessel of anastomosis which crosses the midline to join the paired anterior cerebral aa.; it is part of the Circle of Willis
cerebral, middle
(N139, N140, TG7-56A, TG7-56B, TG7-72)
internal carotid a. lateral frontobasal a.; prefrontal sulcal a.; precentral sulcal a.; central sulcal a.; anterior parietal a.; posterior parietal a.; anterior, middle and posterior temporal aa. frontal, parietal and temporal lobes, especially on their lateral surfaces the middle cerebral a. is the direct continuation of the internal carotid a.
communicating, posterior
(N139, N140, TG7-56A, TG7-56B, TG7-72)

internal carotid a. perforating aa. an anastomotic connection a vessel of anastomosis which connects the internal carotid a. to the posterior cerebral a.; part of the cerebral arterial circle (of Willis)
vertebral
(N139, N140, N171, TG7-56A, TG7-56B, TG7-72)
subclavian (1st part)spinal brs., muscular brs., ant. spinal, post. inf. cerebellar, medullary brs., meningeal brs., basilar (fusion of paired vertebrals)deep neck, cervical spinal cord, hindbrainanastomoses with internal carotid in cerebral arterial circle (of Willis); courses through transverse foramina of vertebrae C1-C6
cerebellar, posterior inferior
(N139, N171, TG7-56A, TG7-56B, TG7-72)
vertebral a. posterior spinal a. part of cerebellum; medulla (cochlear nucleus, vestibular nucleus, dorsal motor nucleus of cranial nerve X, nucleus ambiguus) posterior inferior cerebellar a. shares its region of supply with the vertebral a. and anterior spinal a. (watershed region)
posterior spinal
(N139, N171, TG7-56A, TG7-56B)
posterior inferior cerebellar, with numerous anastomoses with radicular branches of vertebral, posterior intercostal, subcostal, lumbar, lateral sacral aa. pial arterial plexus spinal cord, especially the dorsal columns; medulla (nucleus cuneatus and nucleus gracilis) paired; posterior spinal aa. anastomose with the posterior radicular brs. of the spinal rami of the vertebral, posterior intercostal, subcostal, lumbar and lateral sacral aa.
anterior spinal
(N139, N171, TG7-56A, TG7-56B)
vertebral aa. give off paired ant. spinal aa. that fuse; there are numerous anastomoses with radicular branches of posterior intercostal, subcostal, lumbar, lateral sacral aa. pial arterial plexus meninges; spinal cord; medulla (dorsal motor nucleus of cranial nerve X, nucleus ambiguus, spinal accessory nucleus and hypoglossal nucleus) anterior spinal a. anastomoses with the anterior radicular brs. of the spinal rami of the vertebral, posterior intercostal, subcostal, lumbar and lateral sacral aa.
basilar
(N139, N140, N171, TG7-56A, TG7-56B, TG7-72)
union of vertebral arteriespontine brs., ant. inf. cerebellar, sup. cerebellar, post. cerebral (terminal brs.)pons, cerebellum, post. cerebrum
cerebellar, anterior inferior
(N139, N140, N171, TG7-56A, TG7-56B, TG7-72)
basilar a. labyrinthine a. (usually) pons (motor nucleus of cranial nerve V, chief sensory nucleus of cranial nerve V, abducens nucleus, facial nucleus, superior salivatory nucleus); cerebellum; inner ear anterior inferior cerebella a. shares its region of supply with branches of the basilar a.
cerebellar, superior
(N139, N140, N171, TG7-56A, TG7-56B, TG7-72)
basilar a. no named branches upper cerebellum; trochlear nucleus there may be more than one superior cerebellar a. arising from the basilar a. on each side
cerebral, posterior
(N139, N140, N171, TG7-56A, TG7-56B, TG7-72)
basilar a. posterior cerebral a.; anterior and posterior temporal brs.; medial occipital a. part of the brainstem (oculomotor nucleus, nucleus of Edinger-Westphal, trochlear nucleus); medial and inferior portions of the temporal lobe; occipital lobe the two posterior cerebral aa. are the terminal brs. of the basilar a.
cerebral arterial circle
(N139, TG7-56A, TG7-56B)
an anastomotic circle of blood vessels formed by portions of the following vessels: posterior cerebral aa. (2); posterior communicating aa. (2); internal carotid aa. (2); anterior cerebral aa. (2); anterior communicating a. this is an anastomotic loop; major named vessels connect here, but there are no named branches of the arterial circle brain and midbrain also known as: arterial circle of Willis
meningeal, middle
(N101, TG7-46, TG7-51)
maxillaryfrontal br., parietal br., petrous br., superior tympanicmost of the dura mater (approx. 80%), cranial vault bonespasses through foramen spinosum; may be torn by fracture at pterion; encircled by the auriculotemporal n.

Veins and Venous Sinuses

VeinTributariesDrains IntoRegion Drained Notes
superior sagittal sinus
(N99,N101,N102, TG7-46, TG7-48, TG7-73)
superior cerebral vv.confluens of sinusescerebral hemispheres lies superiorly within falx cerebri; lacunae receive arachnoid granulations
inferior sagittal sinus
(N102, TG7-48, TG7-49, TG7-73)
unites with great cerebral v. to form straight sinuscerebral hemispheres on their medial surfaces lies on corpus callosum in free margin of falx cerebri
straight sinus
(N102, N103, TG7-47, TG7-49, TG7-73)
inferior sagittal sinus & great cerebral veinconfluens of sinusesdeep cerebrum lies within junction of falx cerebri & tentorium cerebelli
confluens of sinuses
(N102, N103, TG7-47, TG7-49, TG7-73)
sup. sagittal sinus, straight sinus, occipital sinustransverse sinusesbrain lies on occipital bone within junction of falx cerebri & tentorium cerebelli
transverse sinus
(N102, N103, TG7-47, TG7-49, TG7-73)
confluens of sinuses, inferior cerebral vv.sigmoid sinusbrain lies within attachment of tentorium cerebelli to inner surface of calvaria
sigmoid sinus
(N102, N103, TG7-47, TG7-49, TG7-73)
transverse sinus, superior petrosal sinusinternal jugular v.brain lies within sigmoid groove covered by dura mater (Greek, sigmoid = resembles the greek letter sigma)
cavernous sinus
(N103, TG7-47, TG7-60)
superior ophthalmic v., middle cerebral vv., sphenoparietal sinussuperior & inferior petrosal sinusesorbit, brain lies within dura mater beside body of sphenoid bone
occipital sinus
(N102, TG7-48, TG7-49, TG7-73)
confluens of sinusescerebellum lies within dura mater at base of falx cerebelli
basilar plexus
(N102, N103, TG7-47, TG7-49, TG7-73)
superior & inferior petrosal sinusesinternal vertebral plexuscavernous sinus variable, connects with other small sinuses nearby (Latin, plexus = a braid)
inferior petrosal sinus
(N102, TG7-47, TG7-49, TG7-73)
cavernous sinusinternal jugular v.orbit & brain lies within dura mater at the medial end of the angle of the petrous part of the temporal bone (Latin, petrosus = stoney)
superior petrosal sinus
(N102, N103, TG7-47, TG7-49, TG7-73)
cavernous sinussigmoid sinusorbit & brain lies on petrous ridge within dura mater at attachment of tentorium cerebelli (Latin, petrosus = stoney)
cerebral, superior
(N100, N101, TG7-46, TG7-73)
superior sagittal sinus cerebral cortex superiorly
cerebral, middle
(N103, TG7-47, TG7-73)
cavernous sinus temporal lobes
cerebral, inferior
(N101, TG7-47, TG7-73)
transverse sinus occipital lobes
emissary
(N99,N101, TG7-73)
connect scalp vv. with dural sinuses; 4 named emissary vv.: parietal, mastoid, occipital & condyloid superior ophthalmic v. also acts as an emissary v.
cerebral, great
(N102, N103, TG7-47, TG7-48, TG7-49, TG7-73)
union of paired internal cerebrals; basal vv.unites with inferior sagittal sinus to form straight sinus deep portions of cerebrum
diploicveins of diploe of skullnearby veins or dural sinusesbones of cranial vault connect with dural sinuses & meningeal vv.
internal jugular
(TG7-73
formed by the union of the sigmoid & inferior petrosal sinuses; tributaries: pharyngeal vv.; lingual, common facial, sternocleidomastoid, superior & middle thyroid vv.brachiocephalic v.brain & skull, face, viscera of necklargest vein of the nead and neck

Topographic Anatomy

Structure/SpaceBoundaries/DescriptionSignificance
anterior cranial fossa
(N9, TG7-07)
boundaries: anterior - inner table of frontal bone; posterior - posterior edge of lesser wing of sphenoid bone
middle cranial fossa
(N9, TG7-07)
boundaries: anterior - posterior edge of lesser wing of sphenoid bone; posterior - petrous ridge of temporal bone
posterior cranial fossa
(N9, TG7-07)
boundaries: anterior - petrous ridge of temporal bone; posterior - occipital bone

Viscera/Fascia

StructureDescriptionSignificance
meninges
(N99,N101, TG7-46, TG7-49)
three layers of tissue covering brain & spinal cord: dura mater, arachnoid mater, & pia mater
dura mater
(N99,N101, TG7-46, TG7-49)
outermost covering of brain & spinal cord
cranial dura mater
(N99,N101, TG7-46, TG7-49)
described as 2 layers: periosteal/endosteal/outer and meningeal/innercranial dural venous sinuses lie between; meningeal layer forms folds that help to support brain: falx cerebri & cerebelli, tentorium cerebelli
spinal dura mater
(TG1-19, TG1-20)
forms dural sac containing spinal cord, lying within vertebral canalsac ends at S2, coccygeal ligament (filum terminale externum) continues inferiorly to attach to coccyx
arachnoid mater
(N99,N101, TG7-46, TG7-49)
thin layer, pressed against inner wall of dura by cerebrospinal fluid pressure in subarachnoid space(Greek, arachnoid = spider-like appearance)
pia mater
(N99,N101, TG7-46, TG7-49)
lies on surface of brain & spinal cordforms denticulate ligament & filum terminale internum
subarachnoid space
(TG7-49)
between archnoid & pia matercontains cerebrospinal fluid (Greek, arachnoid = spider-like appearance)
falx cerebri
(N101, N102, TG7-48, TG7-49)
cresent-shaped sagittally-oriented fold of dura mater lying between cerebral hemispheres(Latin, falx = sickle shaped)
falx cerebelli
(N102, TG7-48)
small, cresent-shaped sagittally-oriented fold of dura mater lying between cerebellar hemispheres(Latin, falx = sickle shaped)
tentorium cerebelli
(N103, TG7-48, TG7-51)
tent-like sheet of dura mater covering of cerebellum, oriented somewhat transverselymidbrain passes through tentorial notch (Latin, tentorium = tent)
diaphragma sellaedura mater forming roof of hypophyseal fossapierced by stalk of hypophysis
arachnoid granulations
(N99, TG7-46, TG7-49)
projections of arachnoid mater through dura into superior sagittal sinus, to drain CSF(Latin, arachnoid = spider-like appearance)
cerebral hemispheres
(N103, TG7-53A, TG7-53B)
also known as: telencephaloncomprises: cortex featuring gyri, sulci, fissures & lobes; commisures connecting parts; basal ganglia; contains lateral ventricles; origin of cranial nerve I - olfactory
longitudinal fissure
(N113, TG7-54)
midline, sagittal cleft separating the paired cerebral hemispheres; falx cerebri located here
lobe, frontal
(N103, TG7-53A, TG7-53B)
rostral to central sulcuscomprises prefrontal (emotions, personality) & precentral (1st somatomotor) areas
lobe, parietal
(N103, TG7-53A, TG7-53B)
separated from frontal lobe by central sulcus, separated from occipital lobe by line through parieto-occipital sulcus comprises 1st & 2nd somatosensory areas
lobe, occipital
(N103, TG7-53A, TG7-53B)
posterior to line through parieto-occipital sulcuscomprises primarily visual cortex
lobe, temporal
(N103, TG7-53A, TG7-53B)
separated from frontal lobe by lateral sulcusprimarily concerned with hearing
medulla oblongata
(N106, N114, N115, TG7-53, TG7-54, TG7-55)
a.k.a. myelencephalon; most caudal portion of brainstem continuous with spinal cord at foramen magnum; upper portion forms floor of fourth ventricle; site of origin for cranial nerves IX, X, XI (cranial root), & XII
brain stem comrpises midbrain, pons & medulla oblongata
midbrain
(N114, N115, TG7-53, TG7-54, TG7-55)
shortest and most superior portion of the brainstem comprises cerebral peduncles, connecting cerebrum with pons
pons
(N106, N114, N115, TG7-53, TG7-54, TG7-55)
anterior portion of metencephalon site of origin of cranial nerves V, VI, VII & VIII; forms part of anterior wall of fourth ventricle (Latin, pons = bridge)
cerebellum
(N112, N115, TG7-52, TG7-53)
posterior part of metencephalon largest part of hindbrain; important for coordination of movement
horizontal fissure dorsolateral fissure of cerebellum separates cerebellum into superior & inferior surfaces
hypophysis cerebri
(N109,N147, TG7-49)
lies in the sella turcica, connected to brain by the stalk of hypophysis an endocrine gland, it comprises an adenohypophysis anteriorly and a neurohypophysis posteriorly; a.k.a. pituitary gland
cerebral aqueduct
(N109, TG7-50A, TG7-50B)
canal connecting the third and fourth ventricles, passing through the midbrain also known as: aqueduct of Sylvius
interventricular foramen
(N109, TG7-50A, TG7-50B)
communication between the lateral ventricle and the third ventricle; paired, one on each side also known as: foramen of Monro
lateral aperture
(N109, TG7-50A, TG7-50B)
foramen draining the fourth ventricle laterally into the cerebellomedullary cistern paired; also known as: foramen of Luschka
median aperture
(N109, TG7-50A, TG7-50B)
midline, irregular foramen draining the fourth ventricle posteroinferiorly into the cerebellomedullary cistern also known as: foramen of Magendie
ventricle, lateral
(N109, TG7-50A, TG7-50B)
paired spaces within the cerebral hemispheres lateral ventricles drain cerebrospinal fluid to the third ventricle via the interventricular foramina (of Monroe)
ventricle, third
(N109, TG7-50A, TG7-50B)
a midline space within the diencephalon between the paired dorsal thalami and the hypothalamus third ventricle communicates rostrolaterally with paired lateral ventricles via interventricular foramina, communicates posteroinferiorly with fourth ventricle via cerebral aqueduct
ventricle, fourth
(N109, TG7-50A, TG7-50B)
midline space between the cerebellum posteriorly and the pons and upper medulla anteriorly fourth ventricle communicates anterosuperiorly with the third ventricle via the cerebral aqueduct; it drains CSF via the median aperture and the lateral apertures
choroid plexus
(N109, TG7-50A, TG7-50B)
tufts of vessels within each of the ventricles; cerebrospinal fluid is given off by the choroid plexuses

Clinical Terms

Term Definition
epidural/extradural hematoma accumulation of blood in the epidural space, due to damage to the middle meningeal artery and compression of the dura mater and thus compression of the brain. Unless evacuated, it may result in herniation through the tentorium, and death. Patients are typically free of mental status changes initially, and then they rapidly deteriorate.
meningitis inflammation of the meninges. When it affects the dura mater, the disease is termed pachymeningitis, when the arachnoid and pia mater are involved, it is called leptomeningitis or meningitis proper. Classic signs of meningitis are headache and nuchal rigidity.
encephalitis Inflammation of the brain
space occupying lesion a pathological lesion, such as a tumor, in a confined space (such as the cranial cavity) that compresses normal structures. Often the first indication of the lesion is symptoms related to compression of the structures.
subdural hemorrhage a serious type of head injury characterized by a collection of blood under the dura mater adjacent to the brain. Acute subdural hematomas are a surgical emergency that usually result from head trauma and rupture of the bridging veins. Patients usually present with headache and lethargy.
stroke a condition due to the lack of oxygen to the brain which may lead to reversible or irreversible damage. The damage to a group of nerve cells in the brain is often due to interrupted blood flow, caused by a blood clot or blood vessel bursting. Depending on the area of the brain that is damaged, a stroke can cause coma, paralysis, speech problems and dementia.
subarachnoid hemorrhage an acute condition involving sudden hemorrhage into the space between the arachnoid membrane and the pia mater (adjacent to the brain). Often secondary to a head injury or a blood vessel defect known as an aneurysm. The subarachnoid space also contains the cerebrospinal fluid.
CSF rhinorrhea a discharge of cerebrospinal fluid from the nasal cavity, often from a fracture of the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone. (Greek, rhinorrhea = to flow from the nose)
CSF otorrhea a discharge of cerebrospinal fluid from the ear, often due to a damage to the petrous temporal bone. (Greek, otorrhea = to flow from the ear)
hydrocephaly an increased quantity of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) inside the brain that can result in increased pressure. Often the result of a disturbance (obstruction) in the normal CSF circulation or the over-production of CSF.

The material presented in these tables is contained in the book:
MedCharts Anatomy by Thomas R. Gest & Jaye Schlesinger
Published by ILOC, Inc., New York
Copyright © 1995, unauthorized use prohibited.
The excellent editorial assistance of
Dr. Pat Tank, UAMS
is gratefully acknowledged.