Lecture Notes - Scalp, Cranial Cavity, Meninges & Brain

The streaming video of the 2004-5 lab overview is available on the web (password protected).
The computer presentation used by Dr. Brzezinski in lecture is available on the web (password protected). You can also download the PowerPoint presentation to print or review.


Scalp:
Skin: hair, sweat and sebaceous glands, abundant blood supply.

Connective tissue: dense, rich in blood and nerve supply.

Aponeurosis(epicranial): occipitofrontalis muscle; important in scalp lacerations.

Loose areolar tissue: "dangerous area of the scalp"; emissary veins.

Pericranium: dense; cephalohematoma

Scalp vessels: external and internal carotid arteries.
Scalp nerves: Trigeminal (CN V) and C2-3.
Skull:
Calvaria (cranial vault): emissary foramina
Skull base: anterior, middle and posterior cranial fossae: fractures
Cranial meninges:
Dura mater: (external and internal layers), sensitive to pain; epidural / subdural hematoma; falx cerebri; tentorium cerebelli; falx cerebelli; venous sinuses.
Arachnoid mater: cerebrospinal fluid (CSF); subarachnoid bleeding.
Pia mater: closely applied to brain tissue.
Cranial Nerves:
NumberNameForamenFunction
IOlfactorycribriform plate of ethmoidsmell
IIOpticoptic canalvision
IIIOculomotorsuperior orbital fissureeye muscles
IVTrochlearsuperior orbital fissureeye muscles
VTrigeminal(1) Ophthalmic: superior orbital fissure; (2) Maxillary: foramen rotundum; (3) mandibular: foramen ovaleface sensation & mastication
VIAbducentsuperior orbital fissureeye muscles
VIIFacialinternal acoustic meatusface muscles; salivary & lacrimal glands
VIIIVestibulocochlearinternal acoustic meatushearing & balance
NumberNameForamenFunction
IXGlossopharyngealjugular canal (foramen)pharynx; tongue & parotid gland
XVagusjugular canalpharynx, larynx & viscera
XIAccessoryjugular canalneck muscles (Trapezius/sternocleidomastoid)
XIIHypoglossalhypoglossal canaltongue muscles
Venous Sinuses:
Superior sagittal sinus: arachnoid granulation; superior cerebral veins; subdural hematoma
Inferior sagittal sinus
Sinus rectus: great cerebral vein
Confluens of sinuses
Transverse sinus: inferior cerebral veins
Sigmoid sinus: internal jugular vein
Occipital sinus
Superior and Inferior petrosal sinuses
Cavernous sinus: Ophthalmic and middle cerebral veins; the III, IV, V1, V2 are in its lateral wall and contains VI, and internal carotid artery. Cavernous sinus thrombosis
Brain:
Subdivisions:
Cerebrum: 2 cerebral hemispheres; lobes: frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal, and insular
Diencephalon: Thalamus and hypothalamus
Brainstem: last 10 cranial nerves attached to it; midbrain (III, IV), pons (V, VI, VII, VIII), and medulla oblongata (IX, X, XI, XII)
Cerebellum: 2 cerebellar hemispheres
Ventricles & CSF:
2 Lateral ventricles: cerebral hemispheres
Third ventricle: in diencephalon
Cerebral Acqueduct (of Sylvius) & Fourth ventricle: in brain stem
Subarachnoid space: CSF: 100-120 ml
Arteries:
Vertebral & basilar
Internal carotid
Circle of Willis: subarachnoid bleeding