Prelab Images - Anterior & Medial Thigh

Prelab should consist of reading the lab manual and dissector answers and viewing the dissection video. To begin your study, you may find it useful to look over the Netter's or LWW Atlas images listed below.

Step 1. Review the bony landmarks. (Play movie)

Pubic symphysis is in plate N248 or TG5-03. The pubic tubercle and pubic pectin is labeled in plate N486 or TG3-04 and TG3-05 and the pubic crest is in the small area between the two (TG3-06). The anterior superior iliac spine, iliac crest, tubercle (tuberculum) of ilium, and posterior superior iliac spine are all in plate N486 or TG3-04 and TG3-06. The ischiopubic ramus is labeled in plates N359 or TG6-03 and N383 and is basically the ramus of the ischium plus the inferior pubic ramus (plate N486 or TG3-04 and TG3-05). The lesser trochanter, pectineal line, linea aspera, medial epicondyle, lateral epicondyle, and adductor tubercle of the femur are all labeled in plate N489 or TG3-07. The patella is seen in plates N507 or TG3-06 and N511. The tibia, fibula, tibial condyles, tuberosity of the tibia, medial malleolus, and lateral malleolus are all labeled in plate N513 or TG3-08 and TG3-09.

Step 2. Dissect the femoral triangle, noting its boundaries and contents. (Play movie)

Plates N262 and N500 or TG3-18 show the femoral triangle. The sartorius muscle and pes anserinus are labeled in plate N492 or TG3-16 and TG3-57. Adductor longus, pectineus, and iliopsoas muscles are labeled in plates N492 or TG3-19 and N500 or TG3-17. For a view of the full iliopsoas muscle (iliacus plus psoas major) see plate N496 or TG3-17. The femoral nerve, artery, and vein are shown in plates N500 or TG3-17 and N262. The termination of the greater saphenous vein into the femoral vein is seen in plates N500 or TG3-18 and N544 or TG3-02. The femoral sheath (surrounds artery and vein) and the femoral canal are labeled in plate N262 or TG3-18. The femoral canal has deep inguinal lymph nodes within it (plate N546 or TG3-70). Plate N500 or TG3-16 shows the fascia lata removed and plate N505 or TG3-15B and TG3-15C will help you find the intermuscular septum.

Step 3. Define the adductor canal, open it and identify its contents. (Play movie)

Plate N500 or TG3-17 shows the adductor canal with the femoral nerve, artery, and vein passing through it (the vastoadductor membrane which is labeled the anteromedial intermuscular septum in plate N500 or TG3-17 and the reflected sartorius muscle would form the roof of the canal). Plate N493 or TG3-21 shows the femoral artery and vein passing through the adductor hiatus and plate N502 or TG3-31 shows the artery and vein emerging in the popliteal fossa. Plate N512 or TG3-62 also allows you to trace the femoral artery. Plates N500 or TG3-24 and N538 or TG3-63 label the nerve to vastus medialis.

Step 4. Clean and identify the blood vessels of the anterior and medial thigh. (Play movie)

Plates N500 or TG3-22 and N512 or TG3-62 identify the femoral, superficial epigastric, superficial external pudendal, and superficial circumflex iliac arteries. The deep femoral artery and descending genicular arteries are shown in plates N501 or TG3-23 and N512 or TG3-62. Plate N544 or TG3-02 shows the saphenous vein joining the deep femoral vein and plates N500 or TG3-22, N501 or TG3-23, and N502 or TG3-29 show the relationship of the femoral artery and vein as they travel down the thigh and in the popliteal fossa. Plates N501 or TG3-23, N504 or TG3-27, and N512 or TG3-62 show the medial and lateral femoral circumflex arteries branching from the deep femoral artery. Plates N501 or TG3-23 and N512 or TG3-62 show the perforating branches of the deep femoral artery.

Step 5. Clean and identify the components of the quadriceps femoris muscle. (Play movie)

Plates N500 or TG3-16 and N501 or TG3-17 identify the quadriceps muscles that need to be cleaned and identified (rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, and underneath rectus femoris is vastus intermedialis). To see the reflected head of rectus femoris you will need to retract tensor fasciae latae, gluteus medius, and gluteus minimus similar to how the hook is retracting tensor fasciae latae in the right picture in plate N500. The patellar ligament and patellar retinacula are labeled in plates N501 or TG3-17 and N507 or TG3-56. Plate N501 or TG3-24 shows the femoral nerve branching to sartorius and the quadriceps muscles.

Step 6. Clean and identify the muscles and nerves of the medial femoral compartment. (Play movie)

The obturator nerve can be seen in plates N497 or TG3-24 and N498 or TG3-14 coming from the lumbar plexus and going through the obturator foramen to enter the medial thigh. Plate N501 or TG3-24 follows its course in the medial thigh and shows its anterior and posterior branches. Plate N539 or TG3-64 shows its muscular and cutaneous distribution. Plates N492 or TG3-19 and N501 or TG3-20 label the gracilis muscle and plate N493 or TG3-57 labels the pes anserinus. Looking at plate N500 or TG3-24, you can see the terminal branches of the obturator nerve going to gracilis. Clean adductor longus and pectineus and reflect them using the anterior branch of the obturator nerve to separate them from adductor brevis as seen in plate N501 or TG3-24. Now find the posterior branch of the obturator nerve laying on adductor magnus and use it to separate adductor brevis and magnus when you reflect adductor brevis. You should now have a view like plate N493 or TG3-21, except the posterior branch of the obturator nerve will be fully exposed and lying on adductor magnus. Plate N493 or TG3-21 also shows the adductor tendon and adductor hiatus. Plate N539 or TG3-64 reviews the motor and cutaneous distribution of the obturator nerve. Plates N490 or TG3-12 and N491 or TG3-13 review the origin and insertion of all the muscles covered in this lab.

 

Updated: 04 Nov 2011