Prelab Images - Superficial Limbs

Prelab should consist of reading the lab manual and dissector answers and viewing the dissection video. To begin your study, you may find it useful to look over the Netter's or LWW Atlas images listed below.

1. Review the bony landmarks of the upper limb. (Play movie)

The clavicle is see on plate N419 or TG2-03. The humerus, its head, anatomical and surgical necks, greater and lesser tubercles, the intertubercular or bicipital groove, deltoid tuberosity, and the medial and lateral epicondyles and their crests can be seen in N420, N421 or TG2-03A, TG2-03B. The scapula, its supraspinous and infraspinous fossae, the scapular notch, and acromion process are seen in N420, N421 or TG2-03A, TG2-03B. Plate N439 or TG2-04 shows the styloid processes of the radius and ulna.

Step 2. Skin the upper limb (except the palm of the hand). (Play movie)

For skinning the arm make an incision down the center of the arm from shoulder to wrist. Be careful not to cut too deeply or you may damage the cephalic vein or cutaneous nerves (plate N428 or TG2-12 and TG2-02). Make flaps going down the arms and reflect these laterally to reveal the underlying subcutaneous tissue.

Step 3. Find the superficial veins and cutaneous nerves of the upper limb. (Play movie)

Dorsal digital veins, intercapitular veins, dorsal metacarpal veins, and the dorsal venous arch are all part of the dorsal venous network seen in plate N480 or TG2-02. The basilic and cephalic veins continue from the dorsal venous plexus in plate N480 or TG2-02, up the arm in plate N479 or TG2-02, and terminate in the axillary vein in plate N189 or TG4-07. The lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve can be seen traveling with the cephalic vein in plates N479 or TG2-02 and N480. Plate N418 or TG2-51 labels the cubital fossa and plate N479 or TG2-02 shows the median cubital vein traveling through this fossa. Plates N479 or TG2-02 and N480 also show perforating veins. For a simplified drawing of the veins of the upper limb with lymphatic draining added see plate N483 or TG2-53. The lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve begins as the musculocutaneous nerve in the brachial plexus (plate N430), courses under the biceps brachii (N429 or TG2-15), emerges superficially as the lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve (N431 or TG2-17, N479 orTG2-02), and travels down the forearm with the cephalic vein (N480 or TG2-02). Plate N474 or TG2-47 follows this entire course. The medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve begins at the brachial plexus (N430 or TG2-20), travels near the basilic vein (N429 or TG2-15), emerges superficially with the basilic vein, and travels with the basilic vein into the forearm (N480 or TG2-02). The radial nerve comes from the brachial plexus (N430 or TG2-20) and gives off the posterior antebrachial cutaneous nerve (N432 or TG2-18, N477 or TG2-50). This cutaneous nerve emerges superficially near the elbow (N479 or TG2-02) and travels down the posterior side of the forearm (N480 or TG2-02). The superficial radial nerve branches off of the radial nerve deep near the elbow (N478 or TG2-50) and emerges superficially a few inches above the wrist (N478 or TG2-50, N480 or TG2-02) to travel with the cephalic vein into the hand and give off dorsal digital branches. The ulnar nerve begins at the brachial plexus (N430 or TG2-20) and gives off the dorsal cutaneous branch of the ulnar nerve (N476 or TG2-39, N480). This branch continues into the hand to give off dorsal digital branches (N480 or TG2-39). The areas of skin innervated by each cutaneous nerve of the upper limb are shown in plate N481 or TG2-51A and TG2-51B. The dermatomes of the upper limb are shown in plate N482 or TG2-52A and TG2-52B.

Updated: 21 Oct 2011