Review Items - Deep Back & Spinal Cord

Parts of a typical vertebra: (N 154,155,18, TG 1-05A, 1-05D)
Body
Vertebral arch
Pedicle
Superior & inferior vertebral notch
Intervertebral foramen (N 155, TG 1-06,1-07)
Lamina
Transverse process
Spinous process
Superior and inferior articular processes
Vertebral (spinal) foramen (canal)
Characteristics of special vertebrae:
Atlas (C1) (N 17, TG 1-03A, 1-03B)
Axis (C2) (N 17, TG 1-03C) (Note how C1 & C2 join together)
Cervical vertebrae - transverse foramina (N 18, TG 1-03)
Sacrum (N 157, TG 1-08A, 1-08B)
Hiatus (TG 1-08B)
Anterior & posterior sacral foramina
Coccyx (N 157, TG 1-08B)
Muscles:
Deep back muscles (N 175,176, TG 1-14, 1-15)
A. Erector spinae
Vertebral ligaments: (N 158,159, TG 1-10A, 1-10B, 1-11A, 1-11B)
B. Supraspinous ligament
C. Interspinous ligaments
Anterior longitudinal ligament (not seen)
D. Posterior longitudinal ligament
E. Ligamentum flavum
F. Intervertebral disk (TG 1-05C)
Anulus fibrosus
Nucleus pulposus (not seen)
Vertebral joint movements:
Flexion
Extension
Lateral bending
Rotation
Meninges:
G. Dura mater (N 169, TG 1-18, 1-19)
H. Coccygeal ligament (filum terminale externum) (N 159,160,161, TG 1-18, 1-20)
I. Arachnoid mater (N 169, TG 1-19)
J. Pia mater (N 169, TG 1-19)
K. Denticulate ligament (TG 1-19)
L. Filum terminale (internum) (N 160,161, TG 1-20)
Spinal cord:
Gray & white matter (N 165, TG 1-21)
Anterior (ventral), lateral & posterior (dorsal) horns (N 165)
M. Dorsal root (& rootlets) (N 169,257, TG 8-05)
N. Dorsal root ganglion (N 169,257, TG 1-17, 1-19)
O. Ventral root (& rootlets) (N 169,257, TG 1-17, 1-19)
P. Spinal n. (N 169,257, TG 1-17)
Q. & R. Dorsal & ventral primary rami (N 169,257, TG 1-17)
Cervical & lumbar enlargements (N 161, TG 1-18)
S. Conus medullaris (N 160,161, TG 1-20)
T. Cauda equina (N 160,161, TG 1-20)
Miscellaneous:
U. & V. Epidural fat & vertebral venous plexuses (N 170,173, TG 1-22A, 1-22B)
Subdural space (N 169)
Subarachnoid space (N 169, TG 1-19)
W. & X. Spinal aa. & vv. (anterior & posterior) (N 171,172, TG 1-19, 1-21)
Y. Radicular aa. (N 172, TG 1-19, 1-21)
Clinical terms:
Slipped/herniated disc
Radiculopathy, pinched nerve
Laminectomy
Nerve root avulsion
Lumbar puncture, spinal tap
Meningitis
Epidural, spinal, caudal anesthesia
Spina bifida
Hydrocephalus
Myelomeningocele