Visceral - forms surfaces of organs, the serosa.
: Portions of the peritoneum that suspend the gut and its derivatives and provide path for blood vessels and nerves to viscera.
Intraperitoneal: peritonealized organs having a mesentery, such as the stomach, small intestine (jejunum and ileum), transverse colon, liver and gallbladder.
Basic embryological considerations of gut development:
Retroperitoneal: organs without a mesentery and associated with posterior body wall, such as the aorta, inferior vena cava, kidneys and suprarenal glands.
Secondarily retroperitoneal: organs which had a mesentery once and lost it during development, such as the pancreas, duodenum, ascending and descending colons.
Foregut - develops around celiac trunk: stomach to mid-duodenum, liver, pancreas, spleen
Midgut - develops around superior mesenteric artery: mid-duodenum to left colic flexure
Hindgut - develops around inferior mesenteric artery: left colic flexure to rectum
Derivatives of the dorsal mesogastrium: the greater omentum (omental apron, gastrosplenic, gastrophrenic, gastrocolic, and splenorenal "ligaments")
Rotation of the gut
Derivatives of the ventral mesogastrium: lesser omentum (hepatoduodenal and hepatogastric ligaments) and falciform ligament
Derivatives of the dorsal common mesentery: the mesentery, transverse mesocolon, sigmoid mesocolon, mesoappendix and mesocolon for ascending and descending colon (not in the adult).
Development of the omental bursa, omental (epiploic) foramen, fusion fascias, peritoneal regions and gutters such as subphrenic, para-, supra- and inframesocolic spaces and final peritoneal relationships of organs.
The small intestine (small bowel): duodenum, jejunum and ileum
Duodenum: secondarily retroperitoneal.
Large intestine (large bowel): Ascending, transverse, descending and sigmoid colon
Jejunum and ileum
Intestinal branches of superior mesenteric artery and vein, arcades and vasa rectae
duodeno-jejunal flexure and suspensory ligament (of Treitz);
Hepatic and splenic flexures
Nerves and Lymphatics:
Ascending and descending colons: secondarily retroperitoneal
Mesenteries: transverse and sigmoid mesocolons, mesoappendix
Cecum, appendix, ileocecal valve,
tenia, haustra and omental (epiploic) appendages
- superior mesenteric - ileocolic, right and middle colic
- inferior mesenteric - left colic, sigmoid and superior rectal
- marginal artery
Nerves: Preaortic autonomic plexuses and pelvic splanchnics
Lymphatics: Intestinal nodes draining to intestinal lymph trunk to cisterna chyli