Practice Quiz - Posterior Mediastinum

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  1. Sympathetic fibers in the greater thoracic splanchnic nerve arise from neuron cell bodies found in the:
    celiac ganglion
    chain ganglion
    spinal cord
    superior mesenteric ganglion
  2. Which nerve fiber would have its cell body in the lateral horn of the spinal cord at segmental level T1?
    Afferent fiber from cutaneous blood vessels of the nose
    Afferent fiber from skin around the nipple
    Efferent fibers to sweat glands in the lumbar region
    Efferent fibers to skin of the forehead
    Parasympathetic fibers to the heart
  3. Gray rami communicantes contain postganglionic sympathetic fibers that innervate which of the following structures in the thoracic region?
    sweat glands
  4. In the midregion of the thorax the thoracic duct lies immediately posterior to the:
    azygos vein
    superior vena cava
  5. Lymph nodes can be found in which mediastinal compartment(s)?
    All of the above
    None of the above
  6. Which structure contains postganglionic sympathetic fibers?
    greater thoracic splanchnic nerve
    recurrent larygneal nerve
    white ramus communicans
    ulnar nerve
    vagus nerve
  7. Which posterior mediastinal structure is most closely applied to the posterior surface of the pericardial sac?
    azygos vein
    thoracic duct
  8. A tumor of the posterior mediastinum is most likely to compress which of the following structures?
    Arch of the aorta
    Inferior vena cava
    Pulmonary trunk
  9. The aorta is located in which mediastinal compartment(s)?
    Anterior only
    Anterior and middle
    Middle only
    Middle and posterior
    Posterior only
  10. While performing transesophageal echocardiography on a patient, the posterior wall of the esophagus, immediately behind the left atrium, was punctured from within. The patient subsequently developed an infection in the space around the esophagus at this point, namely the:
    Anterior mediastinum
    Middle mediastinum
    Posterior mediastinum
    Superior mediastinum
  11. Since the puncture in the previous question was through the posterior wall of the esophagus, the doctors were also very concerned about possible damage to a thin-walled vessel just behind the esophagus and between the azygos vein and aorta, i.e., the:
    Hemiazygos vein
    Left bronchial vein
    Left pulmonary vein
    Superior vena cava
    Thoracic duct
  12. During a surgical procedure, a patient's right sympathetic trunk was accidentally severed just cranial to the level of spinal nerve T1. Which function would be left intact in the affected region?
    Arrector pili muscle activity
    Dilation/constriction of blood vessels
    Sweat production
    Visceral reflex activity
    Voluntary muscle activity
  13. Most of the drainage of the thoracic body wall reaches the superior vena cava via the azygos vein. A notable exception is the left superior intercostal vein, which normally drains into the:
    Left brachiocephalic vein
    Left bronchial vein
    Left pulmonary vein
    Left subclavian vein
    Superior vena cava
  14. You are observing a physician perform a thoracoscopic procedure. She pushes the deflated lung anteroinferiorly and points out a nervous structure lying across the heads of the ribs. You identify this structure as the
    Greater thoracic splanchnic nerve
    Sympathetic trunk
    Phrenic nerve
    Pulmonary plexus
    Vagus nerve
  15. An enlarging lymph node gradually constricts the flow of blood in the azygos venous arch. Which vessel would enlarge as a result of collateral drainage?
    Superior vena cava
    Inferior vena cava
    Internal thoracic vein
    Right brachiocephalic vein
    Superior epigastric vein
  16. During a procedure to harvest lymph nodes in the posterior mediastinum, the thoracic duct is accidentally cut. The resulting accumulation of lymph in the pleural cavity is referred to as:
  17. A cancerous growth from the body of the 9th thoracic vertebra exerts pressure anterolaterally. Which structure lies in direct contact with this growth?
    Right vagus nerve
    Right phrenic nerve
    Right sympathetic trunk
    Right greater thoracic splanchnic nerve
    Right 9th intercostal nerve
  18. A 45-year-old female patient complains of excessive sweating on the right side of the face and neck and in the right armpit region, where it leaves her clothing constantly stained with moisture. It is now such a terrible social embarrassment that she has become withdrawn and self-conscious. Since no medical treatment has proven effective, she is considering surgical denervation of the sweat glands in the affected areas. Which structure(s) might be removed or cut in order to alleviate her condition?
    Cervicothoracic (stellate) ganglion
    Dorsal roots of cervical nerves
    Greater thoracic splanchnic nerve
    Lumbar sympathetic trunk
    Vagus nerve
  19. While viewing an exploratory surgery on a patient injured in an automobile accident, you see the surgeon elevate the esophagus off the vertebral bodies and look in the area between the azygos vein and descending aorta. What structure was she most likely looking for?
    Greater thoracic splanchnic nerve
    Left recurrent laryngeal nerve
    Right pulmonary artery
    Sympathetic trunk
    Thoracic duct
  20. The ductus arteriosus sometimes remains open after birth, requiring surgical closure. When placing a clamp on the ductus, care must be taken to avoid injury to what important structure immediately dorsal to it?
    Accessory hemiazygos vein
    Left internal thoracic artery
    Left phrenic nerve
    Left recurrent laryngeal nerve
    Thoracic duct
  21. A frail, elderly man, suspected of having widespread cancer of the lungs and bronchi, is brought in for bronchoscopic examination. The instrument is inserted into the airway, where it accidentally punctures the thin, brittle posterior wall of the diseased right main bronchus. A sudden gush of blood immediately indicates that the instrument has also torn the wall of the blood vessel immediately behind the right main bronchus, i.e., the:
    Azygos vein
    Left brachiocephalic artery
    Pericardiacophrenic artery
    Right pulmonary vein
    Superior vena cava