Review Items - Cardiovascular Summary

Landmarks and osteology:

Sternum (N185,TG4-04)
     Body
     Manubrium
     Sternal angle
     Xiphoid process
     Suprasternal (jugular) notch
Typical rib (N186,TG4-04,TG4-05)
     Head, neck, tubercle, angle and costal groove
     Costal margin
Posterior mediastinum (definition & boundaries) (N231,TG4-35,TG4-36,TG4-37)

Pleura: (N241)

Visceral pleura
Parietal pleura
     Costal, diaphragmatic, mediastinal, cupula, lines of pleural reflection (N211,N196,TG4-18)
Hilar reflection (N241,TG4-29)
Pulmonary ligament (N199,N230,N231,TG4-31,TG4-35,TG4-36)
Recesses
     Costodiaphragmatic (N230,N231,TG4-13A,TG4-13B,TG4-15, TG4-16,TG4-17)
     Costomediastinal (N230,N206,TG4-13A,TG4-15)

Vessels:

Internal thoracic a. & v. (N33,N191,TG4-08,TG4-09)
     Pericardiacophrenic a. & v. (N194,N212,TG4-18)
     Anterior intercostal aa. & vv. (N191,TG4-08,TG4-09)
     Superior epigastric a. & v. (N191,TG4-08,TG4-09)
     Musculophrenic a. & v. (N191,TG4-08,TG4-09)
Posterior intercostal aa. & vv. (N192,TG4-10,TG4-39)
Left superior intercostal vein (N231,TG4-36,TG4-40)
Superior vena cava (N212,TG4-35,TG4-40)
Pulmonary trunk (N212,TG4-19,TG4-29)
     Left & right pulmonary aa. & vv. (N206,TG4-29)
Inferior vena cava (N206,N261,TG4-20,TG4-37)
Aorta (N212,TG4-37,TG4-39)
     Ascending
     Arch
Ligamentum arteriosum (TG4-19,TG4-29)
Aortic arch (N206,N232,TG4-38,TG4-39)
    Brachiocephalic trunk
    Left common carotid a.
    Left subclavian a.
Superior vena cava (N206,N212,N238,TG4-19,TG4-15)
    Brachiocephalic vv. (N206,N212,N238,TG4-19,TG4-18)
        Thymic veins (N211,TG4-19)
        Inferior thyroid vv. (N 70,N238,TG7-13,TG4-19)
Internal thoracic a. and v. (N191,TG4-19,TG4-09)
    Pericardiacophrenic aa. and vv. (N206,N191,TG4-19,TG4-20)
Pulmonary trunk (N206,TG4-34,TG4-19)
    Pulmonary aa. (N199,N206,TG4-34,TG4-20,TG4-29)
Pulmonary vv. (199,N206,TG4-34,TG4-20,TG4-29)
R. and left bronchial aa. & vv. (N207,TG4-39)
Descending aorta (N206,N232,TG4-38,TG4-39)
    Visceral branches
         Bronchial aa. (N207,TG4-39)
         Esophageal aa. (N237,TG4-39)
    Parietal branches
         Posterior intercostal aa. (3-11) (N172,N192,N237,TG4-39,TG4-10)
         Subcostal a. (12) (N264,TG4-39)
Azygos venous system & associated veins (N238,TG4-40)
    Azygos v.
    Hemiazygos v.
    Accessory hemiazygos v.
    Superior intercostal vv. (left & right) (N230,TG4-40)
    Posterior intercostal vv. (segmentals) (N231,TG4-40)

Arterial supply:

Right coronary artery (N216,N218,TG4-22A,TG4-22B,TG4-23A)
     Artery of the sinoatrial node (55%)
     Right marginal
     Posterior interventricular (descending, PDA)
          Septal branches
     Artery of the atrioventricular node
Left coronary artery (N216,N219,TG4-22A,TG4-22B,TG4-23A)
     Anterior interventricular (descending, LAD)
          Septal branches
     Circumflex
          Artery of the sinoatrial node (45%)
          Left marginal
          Posterior artery of the left ventricle

Venous drainage:

Coronary sinus (N212,TG4-24A,TG4-24B,TG4-24C,TG4-24D)
     Great cardiac vein
     Posterior vein of the left ventricle
     Middle cardiac vein
     Small cardiac vein
Anterior cardiac veins

Muscles:

External intercostal muscle and membrane (N188,N189,TG4-08)
Internal intercostal muscle and membrane (N188,N254,TG4-09,TG4-10)
Innermost intercostal layer (N189,254,TG4-09,TG4-10)
     Transversus thoracis m. (N189,TG4-09)
     Innermost intercostal m. (N189,N254,TG4-10)
     Subcostalis m. (seen later) (TG4-10)

Nerves:

Intercostal nn. and collateral branches (N189,N254,TG4-09,TG4-10)
Phrenic n. (N194,N212TG4-09,TG4-18)
Left vagus n. (N206,N212,TG4-19,TG4-36)
     Left recurrent laryngeal n. (TG4-36,TG4-45)
Cardiac plexus (N209,N226,N240,TG4-38,TG4-45)
Pulmonary plexuses (N209,N240,TG4-38,TG4-45)
Vagus nn. (N212,N226,N232,N240,TG4-38,TG4-45)
Esophageal plexus (N209,N240,TG4-38,TG4-45)
Thoracic sympathetic trunk (N209,N240,TG4-45,TG4-46)
    Thoracic ganglia
    Cervicothoracic (stellate) ganglion
    White and gray rami communicantes (N209,N240,N258,N192,TG4-45,TG4-46)
Greater thoracic splanchnic n. (TG4-46)

Mediastinum: (N231,TG4-35,TG4-36,TG4-37)

Anterior
Middle
Superior
Posterior

Pericardium:

Fibrous (N211)
Serous (N212,N241,TG4-18,TG4-19)
     Parietal
     Visceral (epicardium)
Pericardial sac & cavity
     Oblique sinus (N212,N215,TG4-20)
     Transverse sinus (N215,TG4-20)

Heart:

External features
     Apex (N212,TG4-19)
     Base (N212,TG4-19,TG4-22)
     Right (acute) & left (obtuse) margins (N212,TG4-15)
     Diaphragmatic surface (N214,TG4-22)
     Atrioventricular (coronary) sulcus (N212)
     Anterior & posterior interventricular sulci (N212,N214,TG4-19)
     Right and left atria and auricles (N212,N214,TG4-19)
Sternocostal projections (margins, great vessels and valve positions) (N196,TG4-15,TG4-16,TG4-14)

External features of the heart:

Epicardium
Coronary (atrioventricular) sulcus (N212,N214,TG4-21A,TG4-21B)
Sulcus terminalis (N214,TG4-21B)
Anterior & posterior interventricular sulcus (N212 ,N214,N215,TG4-21A,TG4-21B)

Internal features:

Right atrium (N220,TG4-25A,TG4-25B)
     Auricle
     Crista terminalis
          Sinuatrial node
     Pectinate muscle
     Interatrial septum
          Fossa ovalis (& limbus)
          Atrioventricular node
     Valve of the inferior vena cava & opening
     Valve of coronary sinus & opening
     Tricuspid (right atrioventricular) valve
     Cusps of tricuspid valve (anterior, posterior & septal)
Right ventricle (N220,TG4-25C)
     Chordae tendineae
     Papillary muscles (anterior, posterior, & septal)
     Trabeculae carneae
     Septomarginal trabecula (moderator band)
     Conus arteriosus (pulmonary conus)
     Pulmonary valve and semilunar cusps (left, right & anterior)
Left atrium (N221,TG4-26)
     Pulmonary veins (openings)
     Auricle
     Bicuspid (left atrioventricular, mitral) valve
          Cusps of mitral valve (anterior & posterior)
Left ventricle (N221,TG4-26)
     Anterior and posterior papillary muscles
     Trabeculae carneae
     Interventricular septum (membranous and muscular portions)
     Aortic vestibule
     Aortic valve and semilunar cusps (left, right & posterior)

Lungs: (N199,N211,TG4-30,TG4-31)

Apex
Base
Cardiac notch
Lingula
Fissures
    Oblique
    Horizontal (right)
Hilum
Projection of lungs and fissures to rib cage (N196,N197,N200,TG4-13A,TG4-13B,TG4-15, TG4-16)
Surfaces and borders (N206,TG4-30,TG4-31)
Right lung - lobes and bronchopulmonary segments (N201,N203,TG4-32AB,TG4-32CD)
    Superior lobe: apical, posterior and anterior segments
    Middle lobe: medial and lateral segments
    Inferior lobe: superior seg.; ant., med., lat. & post. basal seg.
Left lung - lobes and bronchopulmonary segments (N201,N203,TG4-32AB,TG4-32CD)
    Superior lobe
        Superior division: apicoposterior & anterior segments
        Lingular division: superior and inferior lingular segments
    Inferior lobe: superior seg.; ant., med., lat. & post. basal seg.

Trachea & bronchial tree:

Tracheal bifurcation (N202,TG4-33,TG4-34)
Carina
Bronchi (N202,N203,TG4-33,TG4-34,TG4-38)
    Main (primary) - Right and left
    Lobar (secondary)
        Superior, middle and inferior (right lung)
            Bronchus intermedius
        Superior and inferior (left lung)
            Lingular bronchus
    Segmental (tertiary)
        Superior segmental bronchus of right inferior lobe

Viscera:

Trachea (N232,TG4-33,TG4-38)
Tracheal bifurcation
Main (primary) bronchi
    Right and left
Esophagus (N232,TG4-38)


Miscellaneous:

Trachea (N206,N211,TG4-33,TG4-37)
Hilum and root of lung (N199,TG4-29)
Parasternal lymph nodes (N181,TG2-11)
Endothoracic fascia (TG4-08)

Miscellaneous:

Anulus fibrosus (fibrous ring) (N222)
Myocardium (N221)
Endocardium (N221)
Epicardial fat (N212,N214)

Miscellaneous:

Subcostalis mm. (N254,TG4-41)
Internal intercostal membrane (TG4-41)
Anterior longitudinal ligament (TG4-41)

Lymphatics: (N208,TG4-42,TG4-44)

Pulmonary nodes
Bronchopulmonary (hilar) nodes
Tracheobronchial (carinal) nodes (superior & inferior)