Medical Gross Anatomy
Anatomy Tables - Nerves

Nerves of the Body - Listed Alphabetically

Nerve Source Branches Motor Sensory Notes
abducens pons: abducens nucleus no named branches GSE: lateral rectus m. none also known as: CN VI, 6th cranial nerve; passes through the superior orbital fissure (Latin, abducens = to draw away)
accessory cranial root: medulla - nucleus ambiguus; spinal root: spinal nucleus of the upper cervical spinal cord no named branches GSE: sternocleidomastoid and trapezius mm. none also known as: CN XI, 11th cranial nerve; spinal root enters cranial cavity by passing through the foramen magnum; exits skull by passing through the jugular foramen; accessory n. is motor only; the subtrapezial plexus of nerves receives proprioceptive fibers: for the sternocleidomastoid m. from the ventral primary rami of spinal nn. C2 and C3 - for trapezius via ventral primary rami of C3 and C4
alveolar, anterior superior infraorbital n. dental plexus none maxillary canine and incisor teeth and gingiva; maxillary sinus anterior superior alveolar n. is enclosed in bone its entire length
alveolar, inferior mandibular division of the trigeminal n.(V3) n. to mylohyoid; inferior dental plexus; mental nerve mylohyoid muscle and anterior belly of the digastric m. via n. to mylohyoid teeth of the mandible; skin of the chin inferior alveolar n. passes through the mandibular canal; the mental n. is its terminal branch which emerges through the mental foramen
alveolar, middle superior infraorbital n. dental plexus none maxillary premolar teeth and gingiva; maxillary sinus middle superior alveolar n. is enclosed in bone its entire length
alveolar, posterior superior maxillary n. dental plexus none maxillary molar teeth and gingiva; maxillary sinus posterior superior alveolar n. enters bone by passing through the small foramina on the posterior surface of the maxilla
anococcygeal n. coccygeal plexus (S4-C1) no named branches none skin overlying the coccyx anococcygeal n. pierces the sacrotuberous ligament
ansa cervicalis superior root (C1 and C2) and inferior root (C2 and C3) of the ansa cervicalis to infrahyoid muscles omohyoid m., sternohyoid m., sternothyroid m., thyrohyoid m., geniohyoid m. none superior and inferior roots of the ansa cervicalis are also known as the anterior and posterior roots (Latin, ansa = handle or loop)
antebrachial cutaneous, lateral musculocutaneous n. anterior and posterior branches none skin of the lateral side of the forearm lateral antebrachial cutaneous n. emerges from the lateral intermuscular interval between biceps and brachialis; it is the continuation of the musculocutaneous n.
antebrachial cutaneous, medial medial cord of the brachial plexus no named branches none skin of the medial side of the forearm medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve travels with the basilic vein for part of its course
antebrachial cutaneous, posterior radial n. inferior lateral brachial cutaneous n. none skin of the lateral distal arm and posterior forearm posterior antebrachial cutaneous n. passes posterior to the lateral epicondyle of the humerus
anterior deep temporal n. mandibular division of the trigeminal n. (V3) no named branches temporalis m. no cutaneous branches a branch of the motor root of CN V; temporalis m. developed from the mesenchyme of the first pharyngeal arch
anterior ethmoidal n. nasociliary n. internal & external nasal brs. none mucous membrane lining the anterior ethmoid air cells and upper anterior part of the nasal cavity; skin of the lower half of the nose anterior ethmoidal n. passes from the orbit into the anterior ethmoidal foramen, passes through the cribriform plate, passes anteriorly on cribriform plate, then exits the cranial cavity through the ethmoid fissure into the nasal cavity (Greek, ethmoidal = sieve-like)
anterior femoral cutaneous n. femoral no named branches sympathetic motor innervation to skin skin of the anterior thigh cutaneous nn. carry postganglionic sympathetic axons to skin
anterior interosseous n. median n. no named branches flexor pollicis longus m., radial half of flexor digitorum profundus m., pronator quadratus m. none courses along the anterior surface of the interosseous membrane (Latin, inter = between + os = bone)
anterior labial n. ilioinguinal n. no named branches none skin of the anterior aspect of the labium majus communicates with the genital br. of the genitofemoral n. (Latin, labial = lips)
anterior scrotal n. anterior cutaneous br. of the ilioinguinal n. no named branches none skin of the anterior aspect of the scrotum anterior scrotal n. is the continuation of the ilioinguinal n. at the superficial inguinal ring; it communicates with the genital br. of the genitofemoral n.
anterior superior alveolar n. infraorbital n. dental plexus none maxillary canine and incisor teeth and gingiva; maxillary sinus anterior superior alveolar n. is enclosed in bone its entire length
aorticorenal ganglion preganglionic sympathetic via the lesser thoracic splanchnic n. brs. to the renal plexus vascular smooth muscle of the brs. of the renal aa. pain from the kidney, suprarenal gland, upper ureter a sympathetic ganglion; located above or near the origin of the renal a. from the abdominal aorta
auriculotemporal n. mandibular division of the trigeminal n. (V3) parotid brs., articular brs., anterior auricular brs. secretomotor to the parotid gland by carrying postganglionic parasympathetic fibers from the otic ganglion; [preganglionic parasympathetic fibers originate in the lesser petrosal br. of the glossopharyngeal n. (IX)] skin of anterior ear and the skin anterosuperior to the ear; part of the external auditory meatus; temporomandibular joint two roots of the auriculotemporal n. encircle the middle meningeal a.
axillary n. posterior cord of the brachial plexus superior lateral brachial cutaneous nerve deltoid, teres minor skin of the upper lateral arm axillary n. is endangered by surgical neck fractures
brachial cutaneous, inferior lateral radial n. via its posterior antebrachial cutaneous be. no named branches none skin of the lateral side of the distal arm emerges at the lateral intermuscular septum just below the deltoid m.
brachial cutaneous, medial medial cord of the brachial plexus no named branches none skin of the medial side of the arm communicates with the intercostobrachial n.
brachial cutaneous, posterior radial no named branches none skin of the posterior arm emerges medial to the long head of the triceps brachii muscle
brachial plexus ventral primary rami of C5-8 and T1 dorsal scapular, long thoracic, n. to subclavius, suprascapular, lateral and medial pectoral, medial brachial and antebrachial cutaneous, upper, middle and lower subscapular, musculocutaneous, ulnar, median, axillary, radial muscles of the upper limb, excluding trapezius skin of the upper limb axons from spinal cord levels C5-T1 are mixed (braided) in the brachial plexus and repackaged into terminal branches so that each branch contains axons from several spinal cord segmental levels (Latin, plexus = a braid)
buccal branch of the trigeminal n. mandibular division of the trigeminal n. (V3) no named branches no motor branches skin of the cheek, mucosa lining the cheek not a motor nerve; easily confused with the buccal branch of the facial n.
buccal branches of the facial n. facial n. (VII) no sensory branches zygomaticus major & minor, buccinator, orbicularis oris, levator anguli oris, levator labii superioris & alaque nasi, risorius, procerus, nasalis no sensory branches not a sensory nerve; easily confused with the buccal branch of the trigeminal n.
C1 ventral primary ramus C1 spinal n. contributes to the superior root of the ansa cervicalis; brs. to: rectus capitis anterior and lateralis mm., longus capitis m. rectus capitis anterior and lateralis, longus capitis, omohyoid, sternohyoid, sternothyroid, thyrohyoid, geniohyoid none C1 contributes to the cervical plexus (Latin, ramus = a branch)
C2 ventral primary ramus C2 spinal n. contributes to: superior and inferior roots of the ansa cervicalis, lesser occipital n., great auricular n., transverse cervical n.; brs. to: longus capitis & colli, sternocleidomastoid omohyoid, sternohyoid, sternothyroid, thyrohyoid, longus capitis and longus colli skin behind the ear and on the neck below the mandible; proprioception from the sternocleidomastoid m. C2 contributes to the cervical plexus (Latin, ramus = a branch)
C3 ventral primary ramus C3 spinal n. contributes to: inferior root of the ansa cervicalis, great auricular n., transverse cervical n., supraclavicular nn., phrenic n.; brs. to: longus capitis & colli, scalenus medius, levator scapulae, trapezius omohyoid, sternohyoid, sternothyroid, longus capitis & colli, scalenus medius, levator scapulae, respiratory diaphragm skin of the anterolateral neck; proprioception from the sternocleidomastoid m. and the trapezius m C3 contributes to the cervical plexus (Latin, ramus = a branch)
C4 ventral primary ramus C4 spinal n. contributes to: supraclavicular nn., phrenic n.; brs. to: longus colli, scalenus medius, levator scapulae, trapezius longus colli, scalenus medius, levator scapulae, respiratory diaphragm skin of the root of the neck and the upper shoulder; proprioception from the trapezius m. C4 contributes to the cervical plexus (Latin, ramus = a branch)
C5 ventral primary ramus C5 spinal n. contributes to: phrenic n., long thoracic n. respiratory diaphragm, scalene mm., muscles of the shoulder and upper arm skin of the ventral arm and ventral forearm joins the ventral primary ramus of C6 to form the superior trunk of the brachial plexus (Latin, ramus = a branch)
C6 ventral primary ramus C6 spinal n. contributes to: long thoracic n. scalene mm., muscles of the lower shoulder and arm skin of the lateral side of the upper limb joins the ventral primary ramus of C5 to form the superior trunk of the brachial plexus (Latin, ramus = a branch)
C7 ventral primary ramus C7 spinal n. contributes to: long thoracic n. muscles of the lower shoulder, arm forearm skin of the posterior side of the upper limb continues as the middle trunk of the brachial plexus (Latin, ramus = a branch)
C8 ventral primary ramus C8 spinal n. no named branches muscles of the forearm and hand skin of the medial side of the upper limb joins the ventral primary ramus of T1 to form the inferior trunk of the brachial plexus (Latin, ramus = a branch)
cardiac plexus cardiac brs. of the vagus n. and cervical sympathetic trunk; thoracic visceral nn. no named branches moderates heart muscle (parasympathetic: decreases rate and force of contraction; sympathetic: increases rate and force of contraction); vascular smooth muscle of the heart & lungs (sympathetic); smooth muscle & mucous glands of bronchial tree (parasympathetic) pain from the heart and lungs cardiac plexus is continuous with the coronary and pulmonary plexuses; thoracic visceral nn. carry pain from the heart to the upper thoracic spinal cord segments resulting in pain referred to the left upper limb in the T1 and T2 dermatomes (Latin, plexus = a braid)
cardiac, sympathetic cervical sympathetic trunk no named branches heart (sympathetic: increases rate and force of contraction, parasympathetic: decreases rate and force of contraction); bronchial tree & lungs via pulmonary plexus heart, bronchial tree and lungs cervical sympathetic trunk usually gives 3 cervical cardiac brs. l (superior, middle and inferior) to the cardiac plexus
cardiac, vagal vagus n. (X) no named branches heart (parasympathetic: decreases rate and force of contraction; sympathetic: increases rate and force of contraction); bronchial tree and lungs via pulmonary plexus heart, bronchial tree and lungs vagus n. has 2 cervical cardiac brs. (superior and inferior) and 1 or more thoracic cardiac brs.
carotid body, n. to glossopharyngeal n. (IX) no named branches none sensory receptors in the carotid body and carotid sinus chemoreception (blood pH) in carotid body; blood pressure receptors in carotid sinus; both located near the bifurcation of the common carotid a.; vagus n. (X) may share a role in this innervation
carotid plexus, external superior cervical ganglion of the sympathetic trunk, via the external carotid n. distributes along the brs. of the external carotid artery vascular smooth muscle, arrector pili muscles, sweat glands of face & upper neck none postganglionic sympathetic nerve fibers use arteries as roadways to enter the head and neck (Latin, plexus = a braid)
carotid plexus, internal superior cervical ganglion of the sympathetic trunk, via the internal carotid n. most distribute along the brs. of the internal carotid artery, although the deep petrosal n. is an exception because it runs a short course independent of an artery vascular smooth muscle of the brain, orbit, forehead, upper nasal cavity; arrector pili muscles of forehead and anterior scalp; sweat glands of the forehead; dilator pupillae m. none postganglionic sympathetic nerve fibers use arteries as roadways to enter the head and neck (Latin, plexus = a braid)
carotid, external superior cervical sympathetic ganglion contributes to the external carotid plexus vascular smooth muscle of the internal carotid system of vessels; sweat glands, arrector pili mm. of the skin of the forehead none there may be two or more external carotid nn. that join the external carotid plexus from the superior cervical ganglion
carotid, internal superior cervical sympathetic ganglion contributes to the internal carotid plexus vascular smooth muscle of the external carotid system of vessels; sweat glands, arrector pili mm. of the skin of the face and scalp none internal carotid n. appears to be the upward continuation of the sypathetic trunk
celiac ganglion preganglionic sympathetic axons arrive via the greater thoracic splanchnic n. postganglionic sympathetic axons distribute via the celiac plexus along brs. of the celiac trunk vascular smooth muscle of the brs. of the celiac trunk pain from the stomach, liver & biliary system, spleen, upper half of the duodenum & pancreas a sympathetic ganglion; usually 2 celiac ganglia are located on the abdominal aorta at the origin of the celiac trunk; brs. of the vagal trunks pass through the celiac ganglion without synapsing
cervical plexus ventral primary rami of spinal nerves C1-C4 brs. to: longus colli & capitis, sternocleidomastoid m., trapezius m., levator scapulae m., scalenus medius m., rectus capitis anterior and lateralis mm.; superior & inferior root of the ansa cervicalis, n. to the thyrohyoid m., n. to the geniohyoid m., lesser occipital n., great auricular n., transverse cervical n., supraclavicular nn. (medial, intermediate and lateral), contributions to the phrenic n. from C3 and C4 longus colli & capitis mm., rectus capitis anterior & lateralis mm., infrahyoid mm., thyrohyoid m., geniohyoid m., respiratory diaphragm skin of the anterolateral neck; skin of the ear and skin behind the ear close association of the supraclavicular nn. to the phrenic n. results in pain from the respiratory diaphragm referred to the shoulder (Latin, plexus = a braid)
cervicofacial division facial (VII) buccal br., marginal mandibular br., cervical br. muscles of facial expression of the lower part of the face; platysma m. none cervicofacial division usually forms a loop by communication with the temporofacial division of the facial n.
chorda tympani facial (VII) no named branches secretomotor to the submandibular and sublingual glands (it carries preganglionic parasympathetic axons to the submandibular ganglion) taste to the anterior 2/3 of the tongue chorda tympani joins the lingual nerve in the infratemporal fossa and continues with it to the tongue (Latin, chorda = cord + tympanum = a kettle drum)
ciliary ganglion preganglionic parasympathetic axons arrive via the inferior division of the oculomotor n. (III) postganglionic parasympathetic axons which distribute via short ciliary nn. sphincter pupillae m., ciliary m. of the eye none a parasympathetic ganglion; ciliary ganglion is located on the lateral side of the optic n. near the apex of the orbit; sensory and sympathetic axons pass through the ciliary ganglion without synapse - the sensory root is carried via the nasociliary n.and the sympathetic root arrives in the orbit via the internal carotid a.
ciliary, long nasociliary no named branches none eyeball (GSA) these nerves bypass the ciliary ganglion
ciliary, short ciliary ganglion: sensory root - from the nasociliary n. (a branch of V1); sympathetic root - from the internal carotid plexus; parasympathetic root - from the inferior division of the oculomotor n. (III) multiple short ciliary nn. which leave the ciliary ganglion anteriorly sphincter pupillae & ciliary mm. (parasympathetic), dilator pupillae (sympathetic) eyeball (GSA) short ciliary nn. are mixed nerves which contain sensory and 2 types of autonomic nerve fibers; postganglionic parasympathetic neurons whose axons are located in these nerves have their cell bodies located in the ciliary ganglion
cluneal, inferior posterior femoral cutaneous n. no named branches none skin of the lower part of the buttock (Latin, clunis = buttock)
cluneal, middle lateral cutaneous branches of the dorsal primary rami of spinal nerves S1-3 no named branches none skin of the intermediate medial portion of the buttock (Latin, clunis = buttock)
cluneal, superior lateral cutaneous branches of the dorsal primary rami of spinal nerves S1-3 no named branches none skin of the superomedial portion of the buttock (Latin, clunis = buttock)
coccygeal plexus ventral primary rami of spinal nerves S4, S5, C1 anococcygeal n. none skin of the region overlying the coccyx only part of the S4 ventral primary ramus is contributed to the coccygeal plexus (Latin, plexus = a braid)
coccygeus m., n. to sacral plexus (brs. of the ventral primary rami of spinal nerves S3-S4) no named branches coccygeus m., levator ani m. none nerve to coccygeus enters the muscle on its pelvic surface
cochlear n. vestibulocochlear n. no named branches none hearing (SSA) exits the posterior cranial fossa by passing into the internal acoustic meatus
collateral ganglia splanchnic nn. (thoracic, lumbar) plexuses to abdominal & pelvic viscera smooth muscle in blood vessels supplying the abdominopelvic viscera pain from the abdominopelvic viscera sympathetic ganglia; also known as: preaortic ganglia which include: celiac, aorticorenal, superior & inferior mesenteric; brs. of the vagal trunks pass through but do not synapse in collateral ganglia
common fibular n. sciatic n. lateral sural cutaneous n., superficial and deep fibular nn. superficial fibular n.: muscles of the lateral compartment of the leg (fibularis longus and brevis mm.); deep fibular n.: muscles of the anterior compartment of the leg (tibialis anterior m., extensor hallucis longus m., extensor digitorum longus m., fibularis tertius m.) and muscles of the dorsum of the foot (extensor digitorum brevis m.and extensor hallucis brevis m.) superficial fibular n.: distal 1/3 of the anterior surface of the leg, dorsum of the foot excluding the web between the great toe and the 2nd toe and distal interphalangeal segments of all toes; deep fibular n.: skin of the web between the great toe and the 2nd toe "peroneal" is old terminology which has been replaced by "fibular"
common palmar digital nn. median n.; superficial br. of the ulnar n. proper palmar digital nn. sympathetic motor to the skin; motor nn. to the 1st & 2nd lumbrical mm. are carried on common palmar digital brs. of the median n. skin of the palmar surfaces of the adjacent sides of two digits the proper branches of these nerves also supply the dorsum of the tip of the digit (nail bed)
common plantar digital nn. medial plantar n. (1st-3rd); superficial br. of the lateral plantar n. (4th) proper plantar digital nn. 1st lumbrical m. skin of the plantar surface of the toes (except the medial side of the great toe and the lateral side of the 5th toe) the dorsal surfaces of the distal tips of the toes (nail bed regions) are supplied by the proper plantar digital brs. of these nn.
cranial nn. nuclei located in the brain, branistem and upper cervical spinal cord 12 pairs: olfactory, optic, oculomotor, trochlear, trigeminal, abducens, facial, vestibulocochlear, glossopharyngeal, vagus, accessory, hypoglossal eye muscles, muscles of mastication, middle ear, face, tongue, pharynx, larynx, most suprahyoid muscles, sternocleidomastoid m., trapezius m., smooth muscle of the gut, cardiac muscle, bronchial smooth muscle, salivary, lacrimal and mucous glands in the head and neck; glands of digestive system smell, vision, taste, hearing, balance, general sensation form the skin of the face, sense from viscera of the head, neck, thorax and abdomen (proximal to the splenic flexure) details about each cranial nerve may be found elsewhere in this chart
deep fibular n. common fibular n. one proper digital br. muscles of the anterior compartment of the leg (tibialis anterior m., extensor hallucis longus m., extensor digitorum longus m., fibularis tertius m.) and muscles of the dorsum of the foot (extensor digitorum brevis m.and extensor hallucis brevis m.) skin of the web between the great toe and the 2nd toe anterior compartment syndrome - trauma to the anterior side of the leg can result in pressure buildup in the anterior compartment (from swelling or bleeding) that can damage the deep fibular n., resulting in "foot drop"
deep petrosal n. internal carotid plexus no named branches vascular smooth muscle of the mucous membranes of the lower nasal cavity, maxillary sinus and palate none deep petrosal n. joins the greater petrosal n. to form the n. of the pterygoid canal; the deep petrosal n. contains postganglionic sympathetic axons (synapse occurred in the superior cervical sympathetic ganglion)
deep radial n. radial n. posterior interosseous n. extensor carpi radialis brevis m., supinator m., extensor digitorum m., extensor digiti minimi m., abductor pollicis longus m., extensor pollicis longus m. extensor pollicis brevis m., extensor indicis m. no cutaneous branches deep radial n. passes through the supinator m.; some authors believe that the posterior interosseous n. and the deep radial n. are synonymous, others say that when the deep radial n. emerges from the supinator in the posterior forearm it becomes the posterior interosseous n., and others say that the deep radial n. does not become the posterior interosseous n. until after its last muscular br. has been given off
digastric m., posterior belly, n. to facial n. (VII) no named branches posterior belly of the digastric m. none the anterior belly of the digastric m. is formed by mesenchyme from the 1st pharyngeal arch and is supplied by the n. to the mylohyoid m. (V3)
digital, common palmar median n.; superficial br. of the ulnar n. proper palmar digital nn. sympathetic motor to the skin; motor nn. to the 1st & 2nd lumbrical mm. are carried on common palmar digital brs. of the median n. skin of the palmar surfaces of the adjacent sides of two digits the proper branches of these nerves also supply the dorsum of the tip of the digit (nail bed)
digital, common plantar medial plantar n. (1st-3rd); superficial br. of the lateral plantar n. (4th) proper plantar digital nn. 1st lumbrical m. skin of the plantar surface of the toes (except the medial side of the great toe and the lateral side of the 5th toe) the dorsal surfaces of the distal tips of the toes (nail bed regions) are supplied by the proper plantar digital brs. of these nn.
digital, dorsal radial n. no named branches sympathetic motor innervation to skin dorsal skin of the lateral 3 1/2 digits, except the nail bed the nail bed is supplied by palmar digital nn.
digital, proper palmar common palmar digital branches of the median n.; common palmar digital branches of the superficial br. of the ulnar n. no named branches sympathetic motor to the skin median: palmar skin and nail bed of digits 1-3 and the lateral side of 4th digit; ulnar: palmar and dorsal skin on medial side of the 4th digit and all of the 5th digit proper palmar digital nn. supply the dorsum of the tip of the digit (nail bed)
digital, proper plantar common plantar digital; medial plantar n. (to the medial side of the great toe); superficial br. of the lateral plantar n. (to the lateral side of the 5th toe) no named branches flexor hallucis brevis m. (from the proper plantar digital n. on the medial side of the great toe) skin of the plantar surface of the toes and dorsal surface of the distal interphalangeal segment the nail bed is supplied by the proper plantar digital nn.
dorsal branch of the ulnar n. ulnar n. dorsal digital sympathetic motor innervation to skin skin of the dorsal surface of the medial 1 1/2 digits; skin of the medial side of the back of the hand dorsal branch of the ulnar n. emerges at the level of the ulnar styloid process (Latin, ulna = elbow)
dorsal digital n. radial n. no named branches sympathetic motor innervation to skin dorsal skin of the lateral 3 1/2 digits, except the nail bed the nail bed is supplied by palmar digital nn.
dorsal n., of the clitoris pudendal n. no named branches sympathetic motor innervation to skin skin of the shaft of the clitoris the terminal branch of the pudendal n.
dorsal n., of the penis pudendal n. no named branches sympathetic motor innervation to skin skin of the shaft of the penis the terminal branch of the pudendal n.
dorsal primary ramus first branch off of the dorsal side of the spinal nerve numerous to the deep back mm.; sympathetic innervation to the skin general sense (touch, pressure, pain, heat, cold, etc.) to the skin of the back a mixed nerve containing both motor and sensory fibers (Latin, ramus = a branch)
dorsal root from the dorsal horn of the spinal cord to the spinal nerve none none general sense (touch, pressure, pain, heat, cold, etc.) dorsal root is entirely sensory in function; it is located dorsal to the denticulate ligament
dorsal root ganglion dorsal rootlets dorsal rootlets none one dermatome a sensory ganglion; located in the intervertebral foramen of the vertebral column on the dorsal root - one per spinal nerve; location of the cell bodies of somatic afferent (sensory) neurons
dorsal scapular n. brachial plexus (br. of C5 ventral primary ramus) no named branches rhomboideus major and minor mm.; levator scapulae m. none dorsal scapular n. passes through the scalenus medius m.
esophageal plexus right and left vagus (X) nn.; thoracic visceral brs. of the sympathetic trunk anterior and posterior vagal trunks preganglionic parasympathetic axons from the vagus n. supply smooth muscle and glands of the thoracic esophagus and abdominal gut and its derivatives proximal to the left colic flexure; postganglionic sympathetic axons from the thoracic visceral brs. supply vascular smooth muscle in the esophageal vessels vagus: GVA from the esophagus and abdominal gut proximal to the left colic flexure; thoracic visceral brs.carry pain from the esophagus during development of the gut, the stomach and esophagus rotate 90° to the right with the result that the left and right vagus nerves mix in the esophageal plexus and emerge as anterior and posterior vagal trunks (Latin, plexus = a braid)
ethmoidal, anterior nasociliary n. internal & external nasal brs. none mucous membrane lining the anterior ethmoid air cells and upper anterior part of the nasal cavity; skin of the lower half of the nose anterior ethmoidal n. passes from the orbit into the anterior ethmoidal foramen, passes through the cribriform plate, passes anteriorly on cribriform plate, then exits the cranial cavity through the ethmoid fissure into the nasal cavity (Greek, ethomodial = sieve-like)
ethmoidal, posterior nasociliary n. no named branches none mucous membrane lining the posterior ethmoid air cells and sphenoid sinus posterior ethmoidal n. exits the orbit by passing through the posterior ethmoid foramen (Greek, ethomodial = sieve-like)
external carotid n. superior cervical sympathetic ganglion contributes to the external carotid plexus vascular smooth muscle of the internal carotid system of vessels; sweat glands, arrector pili mm. of the skin of the forehead none there may be two or more external carotid nn. that join the external carotid plexus from the superior cervical ganglion
external carotid plexus superior cervical ganglion of the sympathetic trunk, via the external carotid n. distributes along the brs. of the external carotid artery vascular smooth muscle, arrector pili muscles, sweat glands of face & upper neck none postganglionic sympathetic nerve fibers use arteries as roadways to enter the head and neck (Latin, plexus = a braid)
facial n. pons and medulla: nucleus solitarius of medulla via nervus intermedius (SVA sensory root) from geniculate ganglion; superior salivatory nucleus (GVE preganglionic parasympathetic) of pons via nervus intermedius; facial motor nucleus of pons via motor root greater petrosal n. (preganglionic parasympathetic to pterygopalatine ganglion, postganglionic parasympathetic travels with brs. of maxillary division of V), chorda tympani (SVA taste from anterior 2/3 of the tongue; preganglionic parasympathetic to the submandibular ganglion, postganglionic parasympathetic to the submandibular and sublingual glands), n. to stapedius, posterior auricular n., intraparotid plexus with temporal, zygomatic, buccal, marginal mandibular & cervical brs. stapedius m., stylohyoid m., posterior belly of digastric m., muscles of facial expression; secretomotor to lacrimal, submandibular, sublingual, and mucous glands of the nasal and oral cavities taste (SVA) from the anterior 2/3 of the tongue; part of the skin of the external auditory meatus also known as: CN VII, 7th cranial nerve; exits the posterior cranial fossa by passing into the internal acoustic meatus, goes through the facial canal; motor to muscles of facial expression exits the skull at the stylomastoid foramen
femoral cutaneous, anterior femoral no named branches sympathetic motor innervation to skin skin of the anterior thigh cutaneous nn. carry postganglionic sympathetic axons to skin
femoral cutaneous, lateral lumbar plexus (ventral primary rami of spinal nerves L2-L3) anterior & posterior brs. sympathetic motor innervation to skin skin of the lateral thigh cutaneous nn. carry postganglionic sympathetic axons to skin
femoral cutaneous, posterior sacral plexus (ventral primary rami of spinal nerves S1-S3) inferior cluneal nn.; perineal br. sympathetic motor innervation to skin skin of the lower buttock & posterior thigh cutaneous nn. carry postganglionic sympathetic axons to skin
femorallumbar plexus (ventral primary rami of L2-L4)anterior femoral cutaneous brs., nn. to anterior thigh muscles, saphenous n.sartorius, rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus intermedius, vastus medialis, pectineusskin of anterior thigh, medial leg, & medial footpasses under inguinal ligament lateral to femoral a.
fibular, common sciatic n. lateral sural cutaneous n., superficial and deep fibular nn. superficial fibular n.: muscles of the lateral compartment of the leg (fibularis longus and brevis mm.); deep fibular n.: muscles of the anterior compartment of the leg (tibialis anterior m., extensor hallucis longus m., extensor digitorum longus m., fibularis tertius m.) and muscles of the dorsum of the foot (extensor digitorum brevis m.and extensor hallucis brevis m.) superficial fibular n.: distal 1/3 of the anterior surface of the leg, dorsum of the foot excluding the web between the great toe and the 2nd toe and distal interphalangeal segments of all toes; deep fibular n.: skin of the web between the great toe and the 2nd toe "peroneal" is old terminology which has been replaced by "fibular"
fibular, deep common fibular n. one proper digital br. muscles of the anterior compartment of the leg (tibialis anterior m., extensor hallucis longus m., extensor digitorum longus m., fibularis tertius m.) and muscles of the dorsum of the foot (extensor digitorum brevis m.and extensor hallucis brevis m.) skin of the web between the great toe and the 2nd toe anterior compartment syndrome - trauma to the anterior side of the leg can result in pressure buildup in the anterior compartment (from swelling or bleeding) that can damage the deep fibular n., resulting in "foot drop"
fibular, superficial common fibular n. medial dorsal cutaneous n. to the medial side of the foot; dorsal digital nn. to the lateral 3 toes muscles of the lateral compartment of the leg (fibularis longus and brevis mm.) distal 1/3 of the anterior surface of the leg; dorsum of the foot excluding the skin of the web between the great toe and the 2nd toe and the distal interphalangeal segments of all toes nail beds are supplied by nerves from the plantar surface of the foot
frontal ophthalmic division of the trigeminal n. (V1) supraorbital n., supratrochlear n. none skin of the forehead and the medial part of the upper eyelid; mucous membrane of the frontal sinus the most superior linear structure within the orbit
ganglia, collateral splanchnic nn. (thoracic, lumbar) plexuses to abdominal & pelvic viscera smooth muscle in blood vessels supplying the abdominopelvic viscera pain from the abdominopelvic viscera sympathetic ganglia; also known as: preaortic ganglia which include: celiac, aorticorenal, superior & inferior mesenteric; brs. of the vagal trunks pass through but do not synapse in collateral ganglia
ganglia, myenteric preganglionic parasympathetic via anterior and posterior vagal trunks (gut proximal to the left colic flexure) and pelvic splanchnic nn. (gut distal to the left colic flexure) postganglionic parasympathetic via many short fibers smooth muscle of the gut wall none minute ganglia located within the myenteric plexus; parasympathetic terminal ganglia
ganglia, preaortic splanchnic nn. plexuses to abdominal and pelvic viscera vascular smooth muscle of vessels that supply abdominopelvic viscera pain from abdominopelvic viscera also known as: collateral ganglia which include the celiac ganglion, aorticorenal ganglion, superior mesenteric ganglion and inferior mesenteric ganglion; preganglionic parasympathetic axons of vagal trunk origin pass through the preaortic ganglia but do not synapse there
ganglia, submucosal of the gut preganglionic parasympathetic arrive via branches of the anterior and posterior vagal trunks (gut proximal to the left colic flexure) and pelvic splanchnic nn. (gut distal to the left colic flexure) postganglionic parasympathetic via many short fibers secretomotor to glands in the mucosa of the gut none terminal parasympathetic ganglia; parasympathetic terminal ganglia; also known as: Meissner's plexus
ganglia, sympathetic chain preganglionic sympathetic fibers arrive via white rami communicantes of ventral primary rami of spinal nerves T1-L2 postganglionic sympathetic fibers depart via gray rami communicantes to all spinal nn.; internal & external carotid nn.; cervical cardiac brs.; thoracic direct visceral brs.; greater, lesser & least thoracic splanchnic nn.; lumbar splanchnic nn.; sacral splanchnic nn. dilator pupillae, vascular smooth muscle, arrector pili muscles, sweat glands, suprarenal medulla, heart, lungs and gut pain from viscera located lateral to the vertebral bodies in the neck, thorax & abdominopelvic cavity; the ganglia plus their interconnecting fibers are also known as the sympathetic trunk; preganglionic cell bodies are located in the intermediolateral gray matter of spinal cord levels T1-L2
ganglion, celiac preganglionic sympathetic axons arrive via the greater thoracic splanchnic n. postganglionic sympathetic axons distribute via the celiac plexus along brs. of the celiac trunk vascular smooth muscle of the brs. of the celiac trunk pain from the stomach, liver & biliary system, spleen, upper half of the duodenum & pancreas a sympathetic ganglion; usually 2 celiac ganglia are located on the abdominal aorta at the origin of the celiac trunk; brs. of the vagal trunks pass through the celiac ganglion without synapsing (Greek, celiac = belly)
ganglion, ciliary preganglionic parasympathetic axons arrive via the inferior division of the oculomotor n. (III) postganglionic parasympathetic axons which distribute via short ciliary nn. sphincter pupillae m., ciliary m. of the eye none a parasympathetic ganglion; ciliary ganglion is located on the lateral side of the optic n. near the apex of the orbit; sensory and sympathetic axons pass through the ciliary ganglion without synapse - the sensory root is carried via the nasociliary n.and the sympathetic root arrives in the orbit via the internal carotid a.
ganglion, dorsal root dorsal rootlets dorsal rootlets none one dermatome a sensory ganglion; located in the intervertebral foramen of the vertebral column on the dorsal root - one per spinal nerve; location of the cell bodies of somatic afferent (sensory) neurons
ganglion, geniculate facial n. (VII) (chorda tympani branch) nervus intermedius (SVA sensory root of facial n.) none taste (SVA) from the anterior 2/3 of the tongue a sensory ganglion equivalent in histological structure and function to a dorsal root ganglion; some taste from the palate travels through the greater petrosal n. to the geniculate ganglion; located in the facial canal within the petrous portion of the temporal bone
ganglion, inferior mesenteric preganglionic sympathetic axons from the intermesenteric plexus and the 2nd lumbar splanchnic n. contributes to the inferior mesenteric plexus; contributes to the superior hypogastric plexus vascular smooth muscle of brs. of the inferior mesenteric a. pain from descending colon and sigmoid colon; pain from upper rectum a sympathetic ganglion; located on the abdominal aorta at the origin of the inferior mesenteric a.; may be a series of small, indistinguishable ganglia rather than a single large one
ganglion, otic preganglionic parasympathetic via the lesser petrosal, from the tympanic n. of the glossopharyngeal n. (IX) postganglionic parasympathetic axons distribute with the parotid brs. of the auriculotemporal n. (from V3) secretomotor to the parotid gland none a parasympathetic ganglion; the otic ganglion hangs off of the mandibular division of the trigeminal n. (V3) inferomedial to the foramen ovale
ganglion, pterygopalatine preganglionic parasympathetic axons arrive via the n. of the pterygoid canal from greater petrosal n. of the facial n (VII); postganglionic sympathetic axons arrive via the n. of the pterygoid canal from the deep petrosal n. postganglionic parasympathetic axons distribute via the greater & lesser palatine nn., nasopalatine n., sphenopalatine n. and zygomatic n. secretomotor to: mucous glands of the palate, nasal cavity, lacrimal gland none a parasympathetic ganglion; the pterygopalatine ganglion hangs off of the maxillary division of the trigeminal n. (V2) within the pterygopalatine fossa; preganglionic axons of the greater petrosal n. synapse here; postganglionic sympathetic axons of the deep petrosal n. pass through the otic ganglion without synapsing (they synapse in the superior cervical sympathetic ganglion)
ganglion, semilunar ophthalmic (V1) , maxillary (V2) and mandibular (V3) divisions of the trigeminal n. sensory fibers depart via the trigeminal n. (V) none skin of the face, mucous membranes of the nasal and oral cavities, mucous membrane of the anterior 2/3rds of the tongue (GSA only) a sensory ganglion equivalent in histological structure and function to a dorsal root ganglion; also known as. trigeminal or Gasserian ganglion
ganglion, spiral fibers of the cochlear hair cells cochlear n. portion of the vestibulocochlear n. (VIII) none hearing (SSA) a sensory ganglion of the cochlear part of CN VIII
ganglion, stellate neurons in the intermediolateral cell column of spinal cord level T1 gray rami communicans to spinal nerves C8 and T1 (postganglionic sympathetic); thoracic visceral br. vascular smooth muscle, arrector pili muscle, sweat glands of the C8 & T1 cutaneous distribution on chest & upper limb (C8 and T1 dermatomes); vascular smooth muscle of the lungs pain from lungs a sympathetic ganglion; stellate ganglion is formed by the fusion of the inferior cervical sympathetic ganglion and the T1 ganglion of the sympathetic trunk
ganglion, submandibular preganglionic parasympathetic axons from the chorda tympani (accompanying the lingual n. from the mandibular division of the trigeminal n.) postganglionic parasympathetic axons distribute either directly, or with branches of the lingual n. to the submandibular and sublingual glands secretomotor to the submandibular and sublingual glands and the small glands of the lingual mucosa none a parasympathetic ganglion; submandibular ganglion is suspended from the lingual n. near the deep part of the submandibular gland
ganglion, superior mesenteric preganglionic sympathetic axons from the celiac plexus contributes to the superior mesenteric and intermesenteric plexuses vascular smooth muscle of brs. of the superior mesenteric a. pain from the lower half of the pancreas and duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, appendix, ascending colon and transverse colon a sympathetic ganglion; located on the abdominal aorta at the origin of the superior mesenteric a.
geniculate ganglion facial n. (VII) (chorda tympani branch) nervus intermedius (SVA sensory root of facial n.) none taste (SVA) from the anterior 2/3 of the tongue a sensory ganglion equivalent in histological structure and function to a dorsal root ganglion; some taste from the palate travels through the greater petrosal n. to the geniculate ganglion; located in the facial canal within the petrous portion of the temporal bone (Latin, geniculate = to bend)
geniohyoid m., n. to C1 fibers from the superior root of the ansa cervicalis no named branches geniohyoid m. none nerve to the geniohyoid m. travels with the hypoglossal nerve for a short distance in the superior neck
genitofemoral n. lumbar plexus (ventral primary rami of spinal nerves L1-L2) genital br., femoral br. cremaster m. skin of the anterior scrotum/labia majora & upper medial thigh genitofemoral n. lies on the anterior surface of the psoas major in the abdomen; the genital br. passes through the deep inguinal ring and inguinal canal; brushing the thigh elicits an elevation of the testis via the cremasteric reflex
glossopharyngeal n. medulla: spinal trigeminal nucleus from the superior ganglion (GVA); nucleus solitarius from the inferior ganglion (SVA); nucleus ambiguus (GVA); inferior salivatory nucleus (GVE - preganglionic parasympathetic) tympanic nerve to the tympanic plexus and lesser petrosal n., carotid sinus n., stylopharyngeus brs., pharyngeal brs. GSE: stylopharyngeus; GVE: secretomotor to the parotid gland (preganglionic parasympathetic via the tympanic n. to the lesser petrosal n. to the otic ganglion; postganglionic parasympathetic via the auriculotemporal n.) GVA: carotid body, carotid sinus, pharynx, middle ear; GSA: skin of the external ear; SVA: taste from the posterior 1/3 of the tongue also known as: CN IX, 9th cranial nerve; the glossopharyngeal n. exits the posterior cranial fossa by passing through the jugular foramen;it may penetrate the stylopharyngeus m.
gluteal, inferior sacral plexus (ventral primary rami of spinal nerves L5, S1-S2) no named branches gluteus maximus m. none inferior gluteal n. passes through the greater sciatic foramen inferior to the piriformis m.
gluteal, superior sacral plexus (ventral primary rami of spinal nerves L4-L5, S1) superior & inferior brs. gluteus medius m., gluteus minimus m., tensor fasciae latae m. none superior gluteal n. passes through the greater sciatic foramen superior to the piriformis m.
gray ramus communicans cell bodies located in the sympathetic chain ganglia none carries postganglionic sympathetic axons to the spinal nerve; spinal nerve will carry those axons peripherally to the skin, blood vessels, etc. none gray rami communicantes connect the sympathetic chain to spinal nerves at all vertebral levels (Latin, ramus = a branch)
great auricular n. cervical plexus (contributions from the ventral primary rami of spinal nerves C2&C3) mastoid n., auricular n. none skin of the ear and skin below the ear the great auricular n. crosses the superficial surface of the sternocleidomastoid m.
greater occipital n. dorsal primary ramus of spinal nerve C2 (medial br.) no named branches posterior neck muscles skin of the posterior surface of the scalp muscles innervated by this nerve develop from epimeres in the embryo
greater palatine n. maxillary division of the trigeminal n. (V2) posterior inferior lateral nasal brs. none mucous membrane of the inferior part of the lateral nasal wall; mucosa of the hard palate greater palatine n. passes through the greater palatine canal and foramen
greater petrosal n. facial (VII) no named branches secretomotor (preganglionic parasympathetic) to: lacrimal gland, mucous glands of the lower nasal cavity, maxillary sinus and palate none greater petrosal n. joins the deep petrosal n. to form the n. of the pterygoid canal; the greater petrosal n. contains: preganglionic parasympathetic axons bound for the pterygopalatine ganglion where they will synapse; it passes through the hiatus of canal of greater petrosal n. in the petrous part of the temporal bone
greater thoracic splanchnic n. neurons in the intermediolateral cell column of spinal cord levels T5-T9; the greater thoracic splanchnic nerve appears to arise by multiple contributions from the sympathetic trunk no named branches celiac ganglion; preganglionic fibers supply the adrenal medulla which releases epinephrine and norepinephrine into the blood pain from the abdominal viscera greater thoracic splanchnic n. passes through the crus of the respiratory diaphragm; postganglionic processes from the celiac ganglion spread down the aorta and distribute with its branches; they innervate the vascular smooth of these vessels and vascular smooth muscle of the organs supplied
hypogastric n. superior hypogastric plexus inferior hypogastric plexus supplies vascular smooth muscle of the pelvic viscera pain from the pelvic viscera paired; hypogastric n. lies inferior to the common iliac vessels; it contains postganglionic sympathetic axons
hypogastric plexus, inferior hypogastric nn. and sacral splanchnic nn. (postganglionic sympathetic axons); pelvic splanchnic nn. (preganglionic parasympathetic axons from the ventral primary rami of spinal nerves S2-S4) contributes branches to: uterine/vaginal plexus, vesical plexus, prostatic plexus sympathetic: supplies vascular smooth muscle of vessels supplying the pelvic viscera; parasympathetic: supplies smooth muscle of the pelvic viscera pain from the pelvic viscera; general visceral afferent from the pelvic viscera inferior hypogastric plexus lies between the pelvic viscera and the pelvic wall (Latin, plexus = a braid)
hypogastric plexus, superior intermesenteric plexus and lumbar splanchnic nn. (postganglionic sympathetic axons) hypogastric nn. (right and left) vascular smooth muscle of the pelvic viscera (sympathetic) pain from the pelvic viscera; general visceral afferent from the pelvic viscera superior hypogastric plexus is the continuation of the intermesenteric plexus; it crosses the pelvic brim (Latin, plexus = a braid)
hypoglossal n. medulla: hypoglossal nucleus no named branches; branches of the ventral primary ramus of spinal nerve C1 are carried by this nerve and are not considered to be branches of the hypoglossal nerve intrinsic and extrinsic muscles of the tongue (except the palatoglossus m.) none also known as: CN XII, 12th cranial nerve; the hypoglossal n. exits the posterior cranial fossa by passing through the hypoglossal canal; the superior root of the ansa cervicalis travels with the hypoglossal n. for a short distance
iliohypogastric n. lumbar plexus (ventral primary ramus of spinal nerve L1) lateral and anterior cutaneous brs. muscles of the lower abdominal wall skin of the lower abdominal wall, upper hip and upper thigh iliohypogastric n. receives a contribution from T12 in approximately 50% of cases
ilioinguinal n. lumbar plexus (ventral primary ramus of spinal nerve L1) anterior cutaneous br. (also known as: anterior labial/scrotal n.) muscles of the lower abdominal wall skin of the lower abdominal wall and anterior scrotum/labium majus ilioinguinal n. courses through the inguinal canal and superficial inguinal ring
inferior alveolar n. mandibular division of the trigeminal n.(V3) n. to mylohyoid; inferior dental plexus; mental nerve mylohyoid muscle and anterior belly of the digastric m. via n. to mylohyoid teeth of the mandible; skin of the chin inferior alveolar n. passes through the mandibular canal; the mental n. is its terminal branch which emerges through the mental foramen
inferior gluteal n. sacral plexus (ventral primary rami of spinal nerves L5, S1-S2) no named branches gluteus maximus m. none inferior gluteal n. passes through the greater sciatic foramen inferior to the piriformis m.
inferior hypogastric plexus hypogastric nn. and sacral splanchnic nn. (postganglionic sympathetic axons); pelvic splanchnic nn. (preganglionic parasympathetic axons from the ventral primary rami of spinal nerves S2-S4) contributes branches to: uterine/vaginal plexus, vesical plexus, prostatic plexus sympathetic: supplies vascular smooth muscle of vessels supplying the pelvic viscera; parasympathetic: supplies smooth muscle of the pelvic viscera pain from the pelvic viscera; general visceral afferent from the pelvic viscera inferior hypogastric plexus lies between the pelvic viscera and the pelvic wall (Latin, plexus = a braid)
inferior laryngeal n. recurrent laryngeal br. of the vagus n. (X) no named branches all intrinsic muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid; those muscles are: thyroarytenoid, oblique and transverse arytenoid, posterior and lateral cricoarytenoid, aryepiglottic, thyroepiglottic, vocalis; secretomotor to the mucous membrane of the larynx below the vocal fold mucous membrane of the larynx below the vocal fold inferior laryngeal n. is the continuation of the recurrent laryngeal n., the name change occurs at the cricothyroid articulation
inferior lateral brachial cutaneous n. radial n. via its posterior antebrachial cutaneous be. no named branches none skin of the lateral side of the distal arm emerges at the lateral intermuscular septum just below the deltoid m.
inferior mesenteric ganglion preganglionic sympathetic axons from the intermesenteric plexus and the 2nd lumbar splanchnic n. contributes to the inferior mesenteric plexus; contributes to the superior hypogastric plexus vascular smooth muscle of brs. of the inferior mesenteric a. pain from descending colon and sigmoid colon; pain from upper rectum a sympathetic ganglion; located on the abdominal aorta at the origin of the inferior mesenteric a.; may be a series of small, indistinguishable ganglia rather than a single large one
inferior mesenteric plexus intermesenteric plexus multiple unnamed nn. course along the branches of the inferior mesenteric a. sympathetic: smooth muscle of the vessels supplying the descending colon, sigmoid colon and rectum pain from the descending colon, sigmoid colon and rectum inferior mesenteric plexus contains no vagal parasympathetic fibers; pelvic splanchnic n. axons join the most distal nn. of the plexus near gut wall (Latin, plexus = a braid)
inferior oblique, nerve to inferior branch of the oculomotor n. parasympathetic root to the ciliary ganglion preganglionic parasympathetic supply to the ciliary ganglion for innervation of the sphincter pupillae m. and ciliary m.; inferior oblique m. none parasympathetic root carries GVE (preganglionic parasympathetic axons) to the ciliary ganglion - short ciliary nn. carry the postganglionic parasympathetic axons from the ciliary ganglion to the eyeball
inferior rectal n. pudendal n. no named branches external anal sphincter skin of the anus inferior rectal nerve is one of the first branches of the pudendal n.
infraorbital n. maxillary division of the trigeminal n.(V2) middle alveolar n., anterior superior alveolar n. none mucous membrane of the maxillary sinus; upper premolar, canine and incisor teeth; maxillary gingiva; skin of the lateral nose, lower eyelid, upper lip and zygomatic region infraorbital n.passes through the infraorbital groove, canal and foramen
infratrochlear n. nasociliary br. of the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal n. (V1) no named branches none skin and conjunctiva of the medial upper and lower eyelids; skin of the lateral surface of the nose infratrochlear n. passes inferior to the trochlea of the superior oblique m. (Latin, trochlea = a pulley)
intercostal n. ventral primary rami of spinal nerves T1-T11 lateral & anterior cutaneous brs. intercostal muscles; abdominal wall muscles (via T7-T11); muscles of the forearm and hand (via T1) skin of the chest and abdomen anterolaterally; skin of the medial side of the upper limb (via T1-T2) intercostal n.travels below the posterior intercostal a. in the costal groove
intercostobrachial n. also known as the lateral cutaneous br. of the ventral primary ramus of T2 no named branches sympathetic motor innervation to skin skin of the medial side of the arm intercostobrachial n. communicates with the medial brachial cutaneous nerve
intermediate supraclavicular n. cervical plexus (C3&C4) no named branches none skin of the root of the neck and upper chest, near the mid-clavicle pain from respiratory diaphragm is referred to the shoulder
intermesenteric plexus lumbar splanchnic nn. 1 and 2 renal, testicular (or ovarian) and ureteric brs. sympathetic: smooth muscle of vessels supplying the gut distal to the left colic flexure pain from the descending colon, sigmoid colon and rectum intermesenteric plexus is continuous with the superior mesenteric plexus; it continues inferiorly as the inferior mesenteric plexus and superior hypogastric plexus; intermesenteric plexus does not carry vagal parasympathetic fibers; located anterior to the abdominal aorta between the superior and inferior mesenteric aa. (Latin, plexus = a braid)
internal carotid n. superior cervical sympathetic ganglion contributes to the internal carotid plexus vascular smooth muscle of the external carotid system of vessels; sweat glands, arrector pili mm. of the skin of the face and scalp none internal carotid n. appears to be the upward continuation of the sypathetic trunk
internal carotid plexus superior cervical ganglion of the sympathetic trunk, via the internal carotid n. most distribute along the brs. of the internal carotid artery, although the deep petrosal n. is an exception because it runs a short course independent of an artery vascular smooth muscle of the brain, orbit, forehead, upper nasal cavity; arrector pili muscles of forehead and anterior scalp; sweat glands of the forehead; dilator pupillae m. none postganglionic sympathetic nerve fibers use arteries as roadways to enter the head and neck (Latin, plexus = a braid)
interosseous, anterior median n. no named branches flexor pollicis longus m., radial half of flexor digitorum profundus m., pronator quadratus m. none courses along the anterior surface of the interosseous membrane (Latin, inter = between + os = bone)
interosseous, posterior deep radial n. no named branches some authors say none, others say the deep posterior forearm muscles none there is variability in the definition of this nerve; for some, deep radial and posterior interosseous are synonymous; others define this nerve as the articular br. to the wrist from the deep radial (Latin, inter = between + os = bone)
labial, anterior ilioinguinal n. no named branches none skin of the anterior aspect of the labium majus communicates with the genital br. of the genitofemoral n.
labial, posterior perineal n. (a branch of the pudendal n.) no named branches none skin of the posterior aspect of the labium majus communicates with the perineal br. of the posterior femoral cutaneous n.
lacrimal n. ophthalmic division of the trigeminal n. (V1) no named branches carries secretomotor axons to the lacrimal gland skin of the lateral portion of the upper eye lid and its associated conjunctiva lacrimal n. carries the postganglionic parasympathetic axons from the zygomaticotemporal br. of the maxillary n. that originate in the pterygopalatine ganglion (Latin, lacrima = a tear)
laryngeal, inferior recurrent laryngeal br. of the vagus n. (X) no named branches all intrinsic muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid; those muscles are: thyroarytenoid, oblique and transverse arytenoid, posterior and lateral cricoarytenoid, aryepiglottic, thyroepiglottic, vocalis; secretomotor to the mucous membrane of the larynx below the vocal fold mucous membrane of the larynx below the vocal fold inferior laryngeal n. is the continuation of the recurrent laryngeal n., the name change occurs at the cricothyroid articulation
laryngeal, recurrent vagus n. (X) esophageal brs., tracheal brs., cardiac brs., pharyngeal brs., inferior laryngeal n. upper esophagus, lower pharynx, laryngeal mm. (except cricopharyngeus); smooth muscle of the trachea; secretomotor to mucosal glands in the upper esophagus, lower pharynx, larynx below the vocal fold, trachea; cardiac muscle of the heart (slows heart rate, decreases force of contraction) upper esophagus, lower pharynx, larynx below the vocal folds, GVA from heart right recurrent laryngeal n. loops posteriorly around the right subclavian a.; left recurrent laryngeal n. loops posteriorly around the aortic arch and ligamentum arteriosum; the inferior laryngeal br. supplies all intrinsic muscles of the larynx EXCEPT the cricothyroid m.
laryngeal, superior vagus n. (X) internal br., external br. cricothyroid m., inferior pharyngeal constrictor m.; secretomotor to mucosal glands of the larynx above the vocal folds mucous membrane of the larynx above the vocal folds external br. supplies the cricothyroid m.; all other intrinsic muscles of the larynx are supplied by the recurrent laryngeal n.
lateral antebrachial cutaneous musculocutaneous n. anterior and posterior branches none skin of the lateral side of the forearm lateral antebrachial cutaneous n. emerges from the lateral intermuscular interval between biceps and brachialis; it is the continuation of the musculocutaneous n.
lateral femoral cutaneous n. lumbar plexus (ventral primary rami of spinal nerves L2-L3) anterior & posterior brs. sympathetic motor innervation to skin skin of the lateral thigh cutaneous nn. carry postganglionic sympathetic axons to skin
lateral pectoral n. lateral cord of the brachial plexus no named branches pectoralis major m. no cutaneous branches lateral pectoral n. communicates with the medial pectoral n. anterior to the axillary a.; it pierces the clavipectoral fascia
lateral plantar n. tibial n. superficial and deep branches quadratus plantae m., abductor digiti minimi m., flexor digiti minimi brevis m., lateral 3 lumbrical mm., adductor hallucis m., plantar & dorsal interosseous mm. skin of the lateral side of the plantar surface of the foot; skin of the plantar surface of the lateral 1 1/2 toes (and the nail bed of these toes) lateral plantar n. accompanies the lateral plantar a. though the sole of the foot
lateral supraclavicular n. cervical plexus (C3&C4) no named branches none skin of the root of the neck and upper shoulder pain from respiratory diaphragm is referred to the shoulder
lateral sural cutaneous n. common fibular n. fibular communicating br. none skin of the lateral side of the leg contains postganglionic sympathetic axons for supply of sweat glands, arrector pili mm. and blood vessels
least thoracic splanchnic n. neurons in the intermediolateral cell column of spinal cord level T12 no named branches renal plexus pain from the kidney and suprarenal gland least thoracic splanchnic n.pass through the crus of the diaphragm; it synapses in minute ganglia located in the renal plexus
lesser occipital n. ventral primary ramus of spinal nerve C2 no named branches none skin behind the ear lesser occipital n. arises from the cervical plexus
lesser palatine n. maxillary division of the trigeminal n. (V2) no named branches none mucous membrane of the soft palate and posterior hard palate lesser palatine n. passes through the greater palatine canal and lesser palatine foramen
lesser petrosal n. tympanic nerve, from the glossopharyngeal n. (IX) otic ganglion secretomotor (preganglionic parasympathetic) for the parotid gland none lesser petrosal n. synapses in the otic ganglion and postganglionic axons distribute to the parotid gland by joining the auriculotemporal n.
lesser thoracic splanchnic n. neurons in the intermediolateral cell column of spinal cord levels T10-T11; the lesser thoracic splanchnic nerve appears to arise by multiple contributions from the sympathetic trunk no named branches aorticorenal ganglion; pain from the kidney and suprarenal gland lesser thoracic splanchnic n. passes through the crus of the respiratory diaphragm; postganglionic processes from the ganglion supply vascular smooth muscle of branches of the renal a. and suprarenal aa.; kidney and suprarenal gland
lingual n. mandibular division of the trigeminal n. (V3) no named branches none general sense from the anterior 2/3 of the tongue and floor of the mouth lingual n. is joined by the chorda tympani (taste and preganglionic parasympathetic) from the facial n. in the infratemporal fossa; the submandibular ganglion hangs from the lingual nerve in the paralingual space
long ciliary n. nasociliary no named branches none eyeball (GSA) these nerves bypass the ciliary ganglion
long thoracic n. brachial plexus (ventral primary rami of spinal nerves C5-C7) no named branches serratus anterior m. no cutaneous branches located on the superficial surface of the serratus anterior m.; lesion of this nerve causes scapular winging, hence the saying "C5, 6, & 7 keep the wings from heaven"
lower subscapular n. posterior cord of the brachial plexus (C5, C6) unnamed muscular brs. subscapularis m., teres major m. no cutaneous branches subscapularis and teres major are antagonists (medial rotation vs. lateral rotation of the humerus)
lumbar n. ventral primary rami of spinal nerves L1-L5 contributes to the formation of the lumbar and sacral plexuses numerous: see lumbar and sacral plexuses numerous: see lumbar and sacral plexuses lumbar nn. enter into the formation of the lumbar and sacral plexuses and do not give branches directly to muscles or skin
lumbar plexus ventral primary rami of spinal nerves L1-L4 branches of the lumbar plexus: iliohypogastric n., ilioinguinal n., genitofemoral n., lateral femoral cutaneous n., femoral n., obturator n., lumbosacral trunk (considered to be part of sacral plexus), brs. to the psoas major and minor mm., branches to the quadratus lumborum m. muscles of the lower abdominal wall; cremaster m., psoas major and minor mm., quadratus lumborum m., iliacus m.; muscles of the anterior and medial thigh and hip skin of the lower abdominal wall, skin of the anterior scrotum/labium majus, skin of the anterior and medial thigh and lateral hip lumbar plexus is noted for its variable branching pattern of nerves that supply the abdominal wall (Latin, plexus = a braid)
lumbar splanchnic nn. lumbar sympathetic ganglia L1-L4 no named branches smooth muscle of vessels that supply the abdominal and pelvic viscera pain from abdominal and pelvic viscera sympathetic nerves; there are four of these on each side; lumbar splanchnic nn. contribute to preaortic abdominal plexuses (celiac, superior mesenteric, intermesenteric, superior hypogastric)
lumbosacral plexus ventral primary rami of spinal nerves L4-S4 branches of the lumbosacral plexus: iliohypogastric n., ilioinguinal n., genitofemoral n., lateral femoral cutaneous n., femoral n., obturator n., lumbosacral trunk (considered to be part of sacral plexus), brs. to the psoas major and minor mm., branches to the quadratus lumborum m., superior & inferior gluteal nn., n. to the obturator internus m., n. to the quadratus femoris m., sciatic n., n. to the piriformis m., posterior femoral cutaneous n., pudendal n., n. to the pelvic diaphragm, pelvic splanchnic nn. muscles of the lower abdominal wall; cremaster m., psoas major and minor mm., quadratus lumborum m., iliacus m.; muscles of the anterior and medial thigh and hip, muscles of the pelvic & urogenital diaphragm, posterior hip, posterior thigh, leg and foot skin of the lower abdominal wall, skin of the anterior scrotum/labium majus, skin of the anterior and medial thigh and lateral hip' skin of the perineum, posterior thigh, leg and foot also known as: lumbar & sacral plexuses (Latin, inter = between + os = bone)
lumbosacral trunk part of the ventral primary ramus of L4 united with the ventral primary ramus of L5 no named branches; it contributes to the formation of the sacral plexus muscles of the hip and posterior thigh see sacral plexus the lumbosacral trunk is not considered to be part of the lumbar plexus
mandibular division of the trigeminal n. trigeminal ganglion; motor root arises from the pons meningeal br., medial pterygoid and lateral pterygoid nn., masseteric n., anterior and posterior deep temporal nn., buccal n., auriculotemporal n., lingual n., inferior alveolar n. SVE: mylohyoid m., anterior belly of the digastric m.; tensor tympani m., tensor veli palatini m.; muscles of mastication (temporalis, masseter, medial pterygoid and lateral pterygoid) GSA: skin of the lower lip and jaw extending superiorly above level of the ear; mucous membrane of the tongue and floor of the mouth; lower teeth and gingiva of the mandibular alveolar arch also known as: V3; passes through the foramen ovale to exit the middle cranial fossa; the otic ganglion is associated with the medial side of V3 below the foramen ovale; the auriculotemporal n. carries postganglionic parasympathetic axons to the parotid gland; the submandibular ganglion is associated withe the lingual n. near the submandibular gland; postganglionic parasympathetics from the submandibular ganglion supply the submandibular gland and the sublingual gland
mandibular, marginal facial n. (cervicofacial division) no named branches orbicularis oris m., depressor anguli oris m., depressor labii inferioris m., mentalis m. none branches of the facial nerve innervate muscles derived from the mesenchyme of the second pharygeal arch
masseteric n. mandibular division of the trigeminal n. no named branches masseter m. none masseteric n. passes over the mandibular notch to reach the deep surface of the masseter m.
maxillary division of the trigeminal n. trigeminal ganglion meningeal br., posterior superior alveolar n., pharyngeal, posterior superior medial and lateral nasal brs., nasopalatine n., greater and lesser palatine nn., zygomatic n., infraorbital n. none GSA: skin of the upper lip, cheek, lower eyelid; mucous membrane of the palate; teeth and gingiva of the maxillary alveolar arch; the mucous membrane lining most of the nasal cavity; the mucous membrane lining the maxillary sinus also known as: V2; maxillary division of the trigeminal n. passes through the foramen rotundum to enter the pterygopalatine fossa; the pterygopalatine ganglion is associated with it in the pterygopalatine fossa; postganglionic parasympathetic fibers distribute with branches of the maxillary division to mucous glands of the nasal cavity and palate; the zygomatic n. & its brs. carry postganglionic parasympathetic axons to the orbit to reach the lacrimal n. and lacrimal gland
medial antebrachial cutaneous n. medial cord of the brachial plexus no named branches none skin of the medial side of the forearm medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve travels with the basilic vein for part of its course
medial brachial cutaneous n. medial cord of the brachial plexus no named branches none skin of the medial side of the arm communicates with the intercostobrachial n.
medial pectoral n. medial cord of the brachial plexus no named branches pectoralis minor m., pectoralis major m. no cutaneous branches medial pectoral n. communicates with the lateral pectoral n. anterior to the axillary a.; it pierces the pectoralis minor m.
medial plantar n. tibial n. plantar cutaneous brs.; proper plantar digital n. (medial side of the great toe); common plantar digital nn. (1st-3rd) abductor hallucis m., flexor hallucis brevis m., flexor digitorum brevis m., 1st lumbrical m. skin of the medial side of the plantar surface of the foot; skin of the plantar surface of the medial 3 1/2 toes (and the nail bed of these toes) medial plantar n. accompanies the medial plantar a. though the sole of the foot
medial supraclavicular n. cervical plexus (C3&C4) no named branches none skin of the root of the neck and upper chest, anteriorly pain from respiratory diaphragm is referred to the shoulder
medial sural cutaneous n. tibial n. no named branches none skin of the posterior surface of the leg; skin of the lateral side of the foot unites with fibular communicating br. to form the sural n.
median n. lateral and medial cords of the brachial plexus anterior interosseous n., palmar br., recurrent (motor) br., common palmar digital nn. (for digits 1-3) pronator teres m., flexor carpi radialis m., palmaris longus m., flexor digitorum superficialis m., flexor digitorum profundus m. (radial half), flexor pollicis longus m., pronator quadratus m., abductor pollicis brevis m., flexor pollicis brevis m., opponens pollicis m., lateral 2 lumbrical mm. skin of the radial half of the palm and palmar side of the lateral 3 1/2 digits (and nail bed for these digits) the median n. is motor to the flexor muscles of the forearm (except flexor carpi ulnaris and the medial 1/2 of the flexor digitorum profundus),the muscles of the thenar compartment and the lateral 2 lumbricals
mental n. inferior alveolar n. no named branches none skin of the chin the lower lip mental n. passes through the mental foramen
mesenteric ganglion, inferior preganglionic sympathetic axons from the intermesenteric plexus and the 2nd lumbar splanchnic n. contributes to the inferior mesenteric plexus; contributes to the superior hypogastric plexus vascular smooth muscle of brs. of the inferior mesenteric a. pain from descending colon and sigmoid colon; pain from upper rectum a sympathetic ganglion; located on the abdominal aorta at the origin of the inferior mesenteric a.; may be a series of small, indistinguishable ganglia rather than a single large one
mesenteric ganglion, superior preganglionic sympathetic axons from the celiac plexus contributes to the superior mesenteric and intermesenteric plexuses vascular smooth muscle of brs. of the superior mesenteric a. pain from the lower half of the pancreas and duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, appendix, ascending colon and transverse colon a sympathetic ganglion; located on the abdominal aorta at the origin of the superior mesenteric a.
mesenteric plexus, inferior intermesenteric plexus multiple unnamed nn. course along the branches of the inferior mesenteric a. sympathetic: smooth muscle of the vessels supplying the descending colon, sigmoid colon and rectum pain from the descending colon, sigmoid colon and rectum inferior mesenteric plexus contains no vagal parasympathetic fibers; pelvic splanchnic n. axons join the most distal nn. of the plexus near gut wall (Latin, plexus = a braid)
mesenteric plexus, superior celiac plexus, superior mesenteric ganglion multiple unnamed nn. course along the branches of the superior mesenteric a. sympathetic: smooth muscle of vessels supplying the lower pancreas, lower duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, ascending colon and most of the transverse colon; parasympathetic (vagus): smooth muscle in the gut wall of same distribution area pain & GVA of the parts of the gut named at left superior mesenteric plexus contains a mixture of vagal (preganglionic parasympathetic) axons and postganglionic sympathetic axons (Latin, plexus = a braid)
middle subscapular n. posterior cord of the brachial plexus (C7, C8) unnamed muscular brs. latissimus dorsi m. no cutaneous branches also called the thoracodorsal n.
middle superior alveolar infraorbital n. dental plexus none maxillary premolar teeth and gingiva; maxillary sinus middle superior alveolar n. is enclosed in bone its entire length
musculocutaneous n. lateral cord of the brachial plexus (C5,6) lateral antebrachial cutaneous n. coracobrachialis m., biceps brachii m., brachialis m. skin of the lateral side of the forearm musculocutaneous n. passes through the coracobrachialis m.
myenteric ganglia preganglionic parasympathetic via anterior and posterior vagal trunks (gut proximal to the left colic flexure) and pelvic splanchnic nn. (gut distal to the left colic flexure) postganglionic parasympathetic via many short fibers smooth muscle of the gut wall none minute ganglia located within the myenteric plexus; parasympathetic terminal ganglia
myenteric plexus preganglionic parasympathetic via anterior and posterior vagal trunks (gut proximal to the left colic flexure) and pelvic splanchnic nn. (gut distal to the left colic flexure) postganglionic parasympathetic via many short fibers smooth muscle of the gut wall none parasympathetic terminal ganglia are located here; also known as: Auerbach's plexus (Latin, plexus = a braid)
mylohyoid, n. to inferior alveolar n., a branch of the mandibular division of the trigeminal n. (V3) no named branches mylohyoid m., anterior belly of the digastric m. none n. to mylohyoid arises near the lingula of the mandible; course within the mylohyoid groove of the mandible
nasociliary n. ophthalmic division of the trigeminal n. (V1) communicating br. to the ciliary ganglion, long ciliary n., anterior and posterior ethmoidal nn., infratrochlear n. none eyeball, skin of the nose and medial sides of the eyelids; conjunctiva of the medial sides of the eyelids; mucous membranes of the upper nasal cavity, ethmoid and sphenoid sinuses the distribution of this nerve is indicated by its name - nasociliary
nasopalatine n. maxillary division of the trigeminal n. (V2) no named branches none mucous membrane of the nasal septum; mucous membrane of the anterior portion of the palate nasopalatine n. innervates the mucosa overlying the primary palate (development); it passes through two openings in bone: sphenopalatine foramen and incisive canal
nervus intermedius pons & medulla: nucleus solitarius of medulla (SVA sensory root) from geniculate ganglion; superior salivatory nucleus (GVE preganglionic parasympathetic) of pons joins with the motor root to form the facial n. (VII); its fibers are contained in the greater petrosal n. and the chorda tympani secretomotor to the lacrimal gland and mucous glands of the lower nasal cavity; secretomotor to the mucosa of the maxillary sinus and palate (synapse occurs at the pterygopalatine ganglion); secretomotor to submandibular and sublingual glands (synapse occurs at the submandibular ganglion) taste from the anterior 2/3 of the tongue nervus intermedius occupies an intermediate position between the motor root of VII and cranial n. VIII when they enter the internal acoustic meatus
obturator internus m., n. to sacral plexus (ventral primary rami of spinal nerves L5-S2 ) n. to the superior gemellus m. obturator internus m., superior gemellus m. none nerve to obturator internus m. crosses the ischial spine and enters the ischioanal fossa by passing through the lesser sciatic foramen
obturator n. lumbar plexus (ventral primary rami of spinal nerves L2-L4) anterior and posterior brs. muscles of the medial thigh: adductor longus m., adductor brevis m. and adductor magnus m., gracilis m., obturator externus m. skin of the lower medial thigh obturator n. passes through the obturator canal
occipital, greater dorsal primary ramus of spinal nerve C2 (medial br.) no named branches posterior neck muscles skin of the posterior surface of the scalp muscles innervated by this nerve develop from epimeres in the embryo
occipital, lesser ventral primary ramus of spinal nerve C2 no named branches none skin behind the ear lesser occipital n. arises from the cervical plexus
occipitalis tertius dorsal primary ramus of spinal nerve C3 (medial br.) no named branches posterior neck muscles skin of the posterior surface of the neck muscles innervated by this nerve develop from epimeres in the embryo
oculomotor n. oculomotor nuclei of the midbrain (extraocular muscles); accessory oculomotor nucleus (nucleus of Edinger-Westphal - preganglionic parasympathetic) superior br., inferior br. GSE: superior br.: levator palpebrae superioris m., superior rectus m.; inferior br: medial rectus m., inferior rectus m., inferior oblique m.; GVE: ciliary m. & sphincter pupillae m. (preganglionic parasympathetic axons go to the ciliary ganglion via the parasympathetic root, postganglionic parasympathetic go from the ciliary ganglion to the eyeball via short ciliary nn.) none also known as: CN III; oculomotor n. passes through the superior orbital fissure to exit the middle cranial fossa
of the pterygoid canal formed by the union of the greater petrosal n. (preganglionic parasympathetic) and the deep petrosal n.(postganglionic sympathetic) ends in the pterygopalatine ganglion (parasympathetic) secretomotor (parasympathetic) to: lacrimal gland and mucous glands of nasal cavity and maxillary sinus; sympathetic innervation to vascular smooth muscle in the same region none contains: preganglionic axons of the greater petrosal n. bound for pterygopalatine ganglion where they will synapse; postganglionic sympathetic axons of the deep petrosal n. which will pass through the pterygopalatine ganglion without synapsing
olfactory n. the filaments of the bipolar olfactory epithelial cells constitute the olfactory n. second order olfactory nerve cell bodies located in the olfactory bulb none smell (SVA) also known as: CN I, 1st cranial n.; multiple olfactory filaments pass through the cribriform plate to exit the anterior cranial fossa and synapse in the olfactory bulb; the olfactory tract carries the signal from the bulb to olfactory cortex of the forebrain
ophthalmic division of the trigeminal n. trigeminal ganglion meningeal br., lacrimal n., frontal n., nasociliary n. none (GSA) skin of the forehead, upper eyelid and nose; mucous membrane of the upper nasal cavity, frontal sinus, ethmoid air cells and sphenoid sinuses also known as: V1; the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal n. passes through the superior orbital fissure to exit the middle cranial fossa; the lacrimal n. receives postganglionic parasympathetic axons to the lacrimal gland from the zygomaticotemporal br. of the zygomatic n.
optic n. ganglion layer of the retina to the forebrain none none vision (SSA) also known as: CN II, 2nd cranial nerve; the course of the optic nerve is: through the optic canal to the optic chiasma, then the optic tract to the lateral geniculate body and optic radiation
otic ganglion preganglionic parasympathetic via the lesser petrosal, from the tympanic n. of the glossopharyngeal n. (IX) postganglionic parasympathetic axons distribute with the parotid brs. of the auriculotemporal n. (from V3) secretomotor to the parotid gland none a parasympathetic ganglion; the otic ganglion hangs off of the mandibular division of the trigeminal n. (V3) inferomedial to the foramen ovale
palatine, greater maxillary division of the trigeminal n. (V2) posterior inferior lateral nasal brs. none mucous membrane of the inferior part of the lateral nasal wall; mucosa of the hard palate greater palatine n. passes through the greater palatine canal and foramen
palatine, lesser maxillary division of the trigeminal n. (V2) no named branches none mucous membrane of the soft palate and posterior hard palate lesser palatine n. passes through the greater palatine canal and lesser palatine foramen
palmar digital, common median n.; superficial br. of the ulnar n. proper palmar digital nn. sympathetic motor to the skin; motor nn. to the 1st & 2nd lumbrical mm. are carried on common palmar digital brs. of the median n. skin of the palmar surfaces of the adjacent sides of two digits the proper branches of these nerves also supply the dorsum of the tip of the digit (nail bed)
palmar digital, proper common palmar digital branches of the median n.; common palmar digital branches of the superficial br. of the ulnar n. no named branches sympathetic motor to the skin median: palmar skin and nail bed of digits 1-3 and the lateral side of 4th digit; ulnar: palmar and dorsal skin on medial side of the 4th digit and all of the 5th digit proper palmar digital nn. supply the dorsum of the tip of the digit (nail bed)
pectoral, lateral lateral cord of the brachial plexus no named branches pectoralis major m. no cutaneous branches lateral pectoral n. communicates with the medial pectoral n. anterior to the axillary a.; it pierces the clavipectoral fascia
pectoral, medial medial cord of the brachial plexus no named branches pectoralis minor m., pectoralis major m. no cutaneous branches medial pectoral n. communicates with the lateral pectoral n. anterior to the axillary a.; it pierces the pectoralis minor m.
pelvic splanchnic n. ventral primary rami of spinal nerves S2-S4 (cell bodies are located in the lateral horn gray of the sacral spinal cord) unnamed branches contribute to the pelvic plexus (inferior hypogastric) plexus smooth muscle and glands of the gut distal to the left colic flexure; smooth muscle and glands of all pelvic viscera none parasympathetic nerves; these contain preganglionic parasympathetic axons
perforating cutaneous n. sacral plexus (ventral primary rami of spinal nerves S2-3) no named branches none skin of the inferomedial buttock perforating cutaneous n. pierces the sacrotuberous ligament
perineal n. pudendal posterior scrotal/labial n., deep (muscular) br. muscles of the perineum: bulbospongiosus m., ischiocavernosus m., superficial and deep transverse perineus mm., sphincter urethrae m., sphincter urethrovaginalis, compressor urethrae skin of the posterior surface of the scrotum/labium majus perineal n.branches from the pudendal n. at the posterior margin of the urogenital diaphragm
peroneal, common SEE: fibular, common . . . "peroneal" is old terminology which has been replaced by fibular
peroneal, deep SEE: fibular, deep . . . "peroneal" is old terminology which has been replaced by fibular
peroneal, superficial SEE: fibular, superficial . . . "peroneal" is old terminology which has been replaced by fibular
petrosal, deep internal carotid plexus no named branches vascular smooth muscle of the mucous membranes of the lower nasal cavity, maxillary sinus and palate none deep petrosal n. joins the greater petrosal n. to form the n. of the pterygoid canal; the deep petrosal n. contains postganglionic sympathetic axons (synapse occurred in the superior cervical sympathetic ganglion)
petrosal, greater facial (VII) no named branches secretomotor (preganglionic parasympathetic) to: lacrimal gland, mucous glands of the lower nasal cavity, maxillary sinus and palate none greater petrosal n. joins the deep petrosal n. to form the n. of the pterygoid canal; the greater petrosal n. contains: preganglionic parasympathetic axons bound for the pterygopalatine ganglion where they will synapse; it passes through the hiatus of canal of greater petrosal n. in the petrous part of the temporal bone
petrosal, lesser tympanic nerve, from the glossopharyngeal n. (IX) otic ganglion secretomotor (preganglionic parasympathetic) for the parotid gland none lesser petrosal n. synapses in the otic ganglion and postganglionic axons distribute to the parotid gland by joining the auriculotemporal n.
pharyngeal plexus motor contributed by the vagus n. (X); sensory contributed by the glossopharyngeal n. (IX), vasomotor contributed by the superior cervical sympathetic ganglion no named branches vagus: all muscles of the pharynx except stylopharyngeus; sympathetic: smooth muscle in the pharyngeal vasculature glossopharyngeal: mucous membrane lining the pharynx the muscles of the pharyngeal wall are skeletal m. derived from the mesenchyme of the 4th pharyngeal arch (Latin, plexus = a braid)
phrenic n. ventral primary rami of spinal nerves C3-C5 (cervical plexus) no named branches skeletal muscle of the respiratory diaphragm diaphragmatic pleura; some fibers contributed to the pericardium and to the adjacent mediastinal and costal pleurae phrenic n. crosses the anterior surface of the anterior scalene m. (Greek, phrenic = diaphragm)
plantar digital, common medial plantar n. (1st-3rd); superficial br. of the lateral plantar n. (4th) proper plantar digital nn. 1st lumbrical m. skin of the plantar surface of the toes (except the medial side of the great toe and the lateral side of the 5th toe) the dorsal surfaces of the distal tips of the toes (nail bed regions) are supplied by the proper plantar digital brs. of these nn.
plantar digital, proper common plantar digital; medial plantar n. (to the medial side of the great toe); superficial br. of the lateral plantar n. (to the lateral side of the 5th toe) no named branches flexor hallucis brevis m. (from the proper plantar digital n. on the medial side of the great toe) skin of the plantar surface of the toes and dorsal surface of the distal interphalangeal segment the nail bed is supplied by the proper plantar digital nn.
plantar, lateral tibial n. superficial and deep branches quadratus plantae m., abductor digiti minimi m., flexor digiti minimi brevis m., lateral 3 lumbrical mm., adductor hallucis m., plantar & dorsal interosseous mm. skin of the lateral side of the plantar surface of the foot; skin of the plantar surface of the lateral 1 1/2 toes (and the nail bed of these toes) lateral plantar n. accompanies the lateral plantar a. though the sole of the foot
plantar, medial tibial n. plantar cutaneous brs.; proper plantar digital n. (medial side of the great toe); common plantar digital nn. (1st-3rd) abductor hallucis m., flexor hallucis brevis m., flexor digitorum brevis m., 1st lumbrical m. skin of the medial side of the plantar surface of the foot; skin of the plantar surface of the medial 3 1/2 toes (and the nail bed of these toes) medial plantar n. accompanies the medial plantar a. though the sole of the foot
plexus, brachial ventral primary rami of C5-8 and T1 dorsal scapular, long thoracic, n. to subclavius, suprascapular, lateral and medial pectoral, medial brachial and antebrachial cutaneous, upper, middle and lower subscapular, musculocutaneous, ulnar, median, axillary, radial muscles of the upper limb, excluding trapezius skin of the upper limb axons from spinal cord levels C5-T1 are mixed (braided) in the brachial plexus and repackaged into terminal branches so that each branch contains axons from several spinal cord segmental levels (Latin, plexus = a braid)
plexus, cardiac cardiac brs. of the vagus n. and cervical sympathetic trunk; thoracic visceral nn. no named branches moderates heart muscle (parasympathetic: decreases rate and force of contraction; sympathetic: increases rate and force of contraction); vascular smooth muscle of the heart & lungs (sympathetic); smooth muscle & mucous glands of bronchial tree (parasympathetic) pain from the heart and lungs cardiac plexus is continuous with the coronary and pulmonary plexuses; thoracic visceral nn. carry pain from the heart to the upper thoracic spinal cord segments resulting in pain referred to the left upper limb in the T1 and T2 dermatomes (Latin, plexus = a braid)
plexus, cervical ventral primary rami of spinal nerves C1-C4 brs. to: longus colli & capitis, sternocleidomastoid m., trapezius m., levator scapulae m., scalenus medius m., rectus capitis anterior and lateralis mm.; superior & inferior root of the ansa cervicalis, n. to the thyrohyoid m., n. to the geniohyoid m., lesser occipital n., great auricular n., transverse cervical n., supraclavicular nn. (medial, intermediate and lateral), contributions to the phrenic n. from C3 and C4 longus colli & capitis mm., rectus capitis anterior & lateralis mm., infrahyoid mm., thyrohyoid m., geniohyoid m., respiratory diaphragm skin of the anterolateral neck; skin of the ear and skin behind the ear close association of the supraclavicular nn. to the phrenic n. results in pain from the respiratory diaphragm referred to the shoulder (Latin, plexus = a braid)
plexus, coccygeal ventral primary rami of spinal nerves S4, S5, C1 anococcygeal n. none skin of the region overlying the coccyx only part of the S4 ventral primary ramus is contributed to the coccygeal plexus (Latin, plexus = a braid)
plexus, esophageal right and left vagus (X) nn.; thoracic visceral brs. of the sympathetic trunk anterior and posterior vagal trunks preganglionic parasympathetic axons from the vagus n. supply smooth muscle and glands of the thoracic esophagus and abdominal gut and its derivatives proximal to the left colic flexure; postganglionic sympathetic axons from the thoracic visceral brs. supply vascular smooth muscle in the esophageal vessels vagus: GVA from the esophagus and abdominal gut proximal to the left colic flexure; thoracic visceral brs.carry pain from the esophagus during development of the gut, the stomach and esophagus rotate 90° to the right with the result that the left and right vagus nerves mix in the esophageal plexus and emerge as anterior and posterior vagal trunks (Latin, plexus = a braid)
plexus, external carotid superior cervical ganglion of the sympathetic trunk, via the external carotid n. distributes along the brs. of the external carotid artery vascular smooth muscle, arrector pili muscles, sweat glands of face & upper neck none postganglionic sympathetic nerve fibers use arteries as roadways to enter the head and neck (Latin, plexus = a braid)
plexus, inferior hypogastric hypogastric nn. and sacral splanchnic nn. (postganglionic sympathetic axons); pelvic splanchnic nn. (preganglionic parasympathetic axons from the ventral primary rami of spinal nerves S2-S4) contributes branches to: uterine/vaginal plexus, vesical plexus, prostatic plexus sympathetic: supplies vascular smooth muscle of vessels supplying the pelvic viscera; parasympathetic: supplies smooth muscle of the pelvic viscera pain from the pelvic viscera; general visceral afferent from the pelvic viscera inferior hypogastric plexus lies between the pelvic viscera and the pelvic wall (Latin, plexus = a braid)
plexus, inferior mesenteric intermesenteric plexus multiple unnamed nn. course along the branches of the inferior mesenteric a. sympathetic: smooth muscle of the vessels supplying the descending colon, sigmoid colon and rectum pain from the descending colon, sigmoid colon and rectum inferior mesenteric plexus contains no vagal parasympathetic fibers; pelvic splanchnic n. axons join the most distal nn. of the plexus near gut wall (Latin, plexus = a braid)
plexus, intermesenteric lumbar splanchnic nn. 1 and 2 renal, testicular (or ovarian) and ureteric brs. sympathetic: smooth muscle of vessels supplying the gut distal to the left colic flexure pain from the descending colon, sigmoid colon and rectum intermesenteric plexus is continuous with the superior mesenteric plexus; it continues inferiorly as the inferior mesenteric plexus and superior hypogastric plexus; intermesenteric plexus does not carry vagal parasympathetic fibers; located anterior to the abdominal aorta between the superior and inferior mesenteric aa. (Latin, plexus = a braid)
plexus, internal carotid superior cervical ganglion of the sympathetic trunk, via the internal carotid n. most distribute along the brs. of the internal carotid artery, although the deep petrosal n. is an exception because it runs a short course independent of an artery vascular smooth muscle of the brain, orbit, forehead, upper nasal cavity; arrector pili muscles of forehead and anterior scalp; sweat glands of the forehead; dilator pupillae m. none postganglionic sympathetic nerve fibers use arteries as roadways to enter the head and neck (Latin, plexus = a braid)
plexus, lumbar ventral primary rami of spinal nerves L1-L4 branches of the lumbar plexus: iliohypogastric n., ilioinguinal n., genitofemoral n., lateral femoral cutaneous n., femoral n., obturator n., lumbosacral trunk (considered to be part of sacral plexus), brs. to the psoas major and minor mm., branches to the quadratus lumborum m. muscles of the lower abdominal wall; cremaster m., psoas major and minor mm., quadratus lumborum m., iliacus m.; muscles of the anterior and medial thigh and hip skin of the lower abdominal wall, skin of the anterior scrotum/labium majus, skin of the anterior and medial thigh and lateral hip lumbar plexus is noted for its variable branching pattern of nerves that supply the abdominal wall (Latin, plexus = a braid)
plexus, lumbosacral ventral primary rami of spinal nerves L4-S4 branches of the lumbosacral plexus: iliohypogastric n., ilioinguinal n., genitofemoral n., lateral femoral cutaneous n., femoral n., obturator n., lumbosacral trunk (considered to be part of sacral plexus), brs. to the psoas major and minor mm., branches to the quadratus lumborum m., superior & inferior gluteal nn., n. to the obturator internus m., n. to the quadratus femoris m., sciatic n., n. to the piriformis m., posterior femoral cutaneous n., pudendal n., n. to the pelvic diaphragm, pelvic splanchnic nn. muscles of the lower abdominal wall; cremaster m., psoas major and minor mm., quadratus lumborum m., iliacus m.; muscles of the anterior and medial thigh and hip, muscles of the pelvic & urogenital diaphragm, posterior hip, posterior thigh, leg and foot skin of the lower abdominal wall, skin of the anterior scrotum/labium majus, skin of the anterior and medial thigh and lateral hip' skin of the perineum, posterior thigh, leg and foot also known as: lumbar & sacral plexuses (Latin, plexus = a braid)
plexus, myenteric preganglionic parasympathetic via anterior and posterior vagal trunks (gut proximal to the left colic flexure) and pelvic splanchnic nn. (gut distal to the left colic flexure) postganglionic parasympathetic via many short fibers smooth muscle of the gut wall none parasympathetic terminal ganglia are located here; also known as: Auerbach's plexus (Latin, plexus = a braid)
plexus, pharyngeal motor contributed by the vagus n. (X); sensory contributed by the glossopharyngeal n. (IX), vasomotor contributed by the superior cervical sympathetic ganglion no named branches vagus: all muscles of the pharynx except stylopharyngeus; sympathetic: smooth muscle in the pharyngeal vasculature glossopharyngeal: mucous membrane lining the pharynx the muscles of the pharyngeal wall are skeletal m. derived from the mesenchyme of the 4th pharyngeal arch (Latin, plexus = a braid)
plexus, prostatic inferior hypogastric (pelvic) plexus is continuous with the rectal and vesical plexuses sympathetic: vascular smooth muscle of the pelvic viscera, especially the urethra, prostate gland and ejaculatory ducts; parasympathetic: smooth muscle and glands of the pelvic viscera, especially the urethra, prostate gland, and ejaculatory ducts pain from the pelvic viscera listed at left the autonomic nerve plexuses of the pelvis (prostatic, rectal and vesical in the male; rectal and uterovaginal in the female) are in communication with each other (Latin, plexus = a braid)
plexus, pulmonary continuous with the cardiac plexus; thoracic visceral nn.; pulmonary brs. of vagus no named branches parasympathetic: smooth muscle & glands of the bronchial tree; sympathetic: vascular smooth muscle of the lungs none pulmonary plexus is located along the pulmonary vessels and primary bronchi in the root of the lung (Latin, plexus = a braid)
plexus, rectal inferior hypogastric (pelvic) plexus, posterior part no named branches sympathetic: vascular smooth muscle of the pelvic viscera, especially the rectum; parasympathetic: smooth muscle and glands of the pelvic viscera, especially the rectum pain and general sensation from the rectum rectal plexus is continuous with the vesical plexus in the male, uterovaginal plexus in the female (Latin, plexus = a braid)
plexus, renal intermesenteric plexus, aorticorenal ganglion, least thoracic splanchnic n. unnamed branches course along the renal vessels sympathetic: smooth muscle of the blood vessels supplying the kidney, renal pelvis and upper ureter; parasympathetic: smooth muscle of the renal pelvis and upper ureter pain from the kidney, renal pelvis and upper ureter renal plexus contains postganglionic sympathetic axons and preganglionic parasympathetic axons (parasympathetic axons are of vagal origin) (Latin, plexus = a braid)
plexus, sacral lumbosacral trunk (ventral primary rami of spinal nerves L4-L5), ventral primary rami of spinal nerves S1-S4 superior & inferior gluteal nn., n. to obturator internus m., n. to quadratus femoris m., sciatic n., n. to piriformis, posterior femoral cutaneous n., pudendal n., n. to pelvic diaphragm, pelvic splanchnic nn. muscles of the pelvic diaphragm; muscles of the urogenital diaphragm; muscles of the posterior hip, posterior thigh, leg and foot skin of the perineum, posterior thigh, leg and foot (excluding the medial side of the leg and foot) the sacral plexus is often grouped with the lumbar plexus as the "lumbosacral plexus" (Latin, plexus = a braid)
plexus, superior hypogastric intermesenteric plexus and lumbar splanchnic nn. (postganglionic sympathetic axons) hypogastric nn. (right and left) vascular smooth muscle of the pelvic viscera (sympathetic) pain from the pelvic viscera; general visceral afferent from the pelvic viscera superior hypogastric plexus is the continuation of the intermesenteric plexus; it crosses the pelvic brim (Latin, plexus = a braid)
plexus, superior mesenteric celiac plexus, superior mesenteric ganglion multiple unnamed nn. course along the branches of the superior mesenteric a. sympathetic: smooth muscle of vessels supplying the lower pancreas, lower duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, ascending colon and most of the transverse colon; parasympathetic (vagus): smooth muscle in the gut wall of same distribution area pain & GVA of the parts of the gut named at left superior mesenteric plexus contains a mixture of vagal (preganglionic parasympathetic) axons and postganglionic sympathetic axons (Latin, plexus = a braid)
plexus, uterovaginal inferior hypogastric plexus continuous with the rectal plexus sympathetic: vascular smooth muscle of the pelvic viscera, especially the uterus, uterine tubes and vagina; parasympathetic: smooth muscle and glands of pelvic viscera, especially uterus, uterine tubes and vagina pain from the pelvic viscera listed at left the uterovaginal plexus is a subsidiary plexus of the inferior hypogastric plexus (Latin, plexus = a braid)
plexus, vesical inferior hypogastric plexus continuous with the prostatic plexus sympathetic: vascular smooth muscle of the pelvic viscera, especially the urinary bladder, seminal vesicle, ductus deferens and ejaculatory duct; parasympathetic: smooth muscle and glands of the pelvic viscera, especially the urinary bladder, seminal vesicle, ductus deferens and ejaculatory duct pain and general sensation from the bladder, seminal vesicle and ductus deferens vesical plexus is continuous with the other autonomic nerve plexuses in the pelvis and cannot be distinguished from them (Latin, plexus = a braid)
posterior antebrachial cutaneous n. radial n. inferior lateral brachial cutaneous n. none skin of the lateral distal arm and posterior forearm posterior antebrachial cutaneous n. passes posterior to the lateral epicondyle of the humerus
posterior brachial cutaneous n. radial no named branches none skin of the posterior arm emerges medial to the long head of the triceps brachii muscle
posterior deep temporal n. mandibular division of the trigeminal n. (V3) no named branches temporalis m. no cutaneous branches a branch of the motor root of CN V; temporalis m. developed from the mesenchyme of the first pharyngeal arch
posterior ethmoidal n. nasociliary n. no named branches none mucous membrane lining the posterior ethmoid air cells and sphenoid sinus posterior ethmoidal n. exits the orbit by passing through the posterior ethmoid foramen (Latin, ethmoidal = sieve -like)
posterior femoral cutaneous n. sacral plexus (ventral primary rami of spinal nerves S1-S3) inferior cluneal nn.; perineal br. sympathetic motor innervation to skin skin of the lower buttock & posterior thigh cutaneous nn. carry postganglionic sympathetic axons to skin
posterior interosseous n. deep radial n. no named branches some authors say none, others say the deep posterior forearm muscles none there is variability in the definition of this nerve; for some, deep radial and posterior interosseous are synonymous; others define this nerve as the articular br. to the wrist from the deep radial (Latin, inter = between + os = bone)
posterior labial n. perineal n. (a branch of the pudendal n.) no named branches none skin of the posterior aspect of the labium majus communicates with the perineal br. of the posterior femoral cutaneous n. (Latin, labial = lips)
posterior scrotal n. perineal n., from the pudendal n. no named branches none skin of the posterior aspect of the scrotum posterior scrotal n. communicates with the perineal br. of the posterior femoral cutaneous n.
posterior superior alveolar n. maxillary n. dental plexus none maxillary molar teeth and gingiva; maxillary sinus posterior superior alveolar n. enters bone by passing through the small foramina on the posterior surface of the maxilla
preaortic ganglia splanchnic nn. plexuses to abdominal and pelvic viscera vascular smooth muscle of vessels that supply abdominopelvic viscera pain from abdominopelvic viscera also known as: collateral ganglia which include the celiac ganglion, aorticorenal ganglion, superior mesenteric ganglion and inferior mesenteric ganglion; preganglionic parasympathetic axons of vagal trunk origin pass through the preaortic ganglia but do not synapse there
proper palmar digital nn. common palmar digital branches of the median n.; common palmar digital branches of the superficial br. of the ulnar n. no named branches sympathetic motor to the skin median: palmar skin and nail bed of digits 1-3 and the lateral side of 4th digit; ulnar: palmar and dorsal skin on medial side of the 4th digit and all of the 5th digit proper palmar digital nn. supply the dorsum of the tip of the digit (nail bed)
proper plantar digital nn. common plantar digital; medial plantar n. (to the medial side of the great toe); superficial br. of the lateral plantar n. (to the lateral side of the 5th toe) no named branches flexor hallucis brevis m. (from the proper plantar digital n. on the medial side of the great toe) skin of the plantar surface of the toes and dorsal surface of the distal interphalangeal segment the nail bed is supplied by the proper plantar digital nn.
prostatic plexus inferior hypogastric (pelvic) plexus is continuous with the rectal and vesical plexuses sympathetic: vascular smooth muscle of the pelvic viscera, especially the urethra, prostate gland and ejaculatory ducts; parasympathetic: smooth muscle and glands of the pelvic viscera, especially the urethra, prostate gland, and ejaculatory ducts pain from the pelvic viscera listed at left the autonomic nerve plexuses of the pelvis (prostatic, rectal and vesical in the male; rectal and uterovaginal in the female) are in communication with each other (Latin, plexus = a braid)
pterygopalatine ganglion preganglionic parasympathetic axons arrive via the n. of the pterygoid canal from greater petrosal n. of the facial n (VII); postganglionic sympathetic axons arrive via the n. of the pterygoid canal from the deep petrosal n. postganglionic parasympathetic axons distribute via the greater & lesser palatine nn., nasopalatine n., sphenopalatine n. and zygomatic n. secretomotor to: mucous glands of the palate, nasal cavity, lacrimal gland none a parasympathetic ganglion; the pterygopalatine ganglion hangs off of the maxillary division of the trigeminal n. (V2) within the pterygopalatine fossa; preganglionic axons of the greater petrosal n. synapse here; postganglionic sympathetic axons of the deep petrosal n. pass through the otic ganglion without synapsing (they synapse in the superior cervical sympathetic ganglion)
pudendal n. ventral primary rami of spinal nerves S2-S4 (sacral plexus) inferior rectal n., perineal n., dorsal n. of the clitoris/penis its branches supply: external anal sphincter, bulbospongiosus m., ischiocavernosus m., superficial & deep transverse perineus mm., sphincter urethrae m., sphincter urethrovaginalis, compressor urethrae its branches supply: skin of the anus, posterior scrotum/labium majus, clitoris/penis pudendal n. passes through the pudendal canal formed by fascia on the medial surface of the obturator internus m.
pulmonary plexus continuous with the cardiac plexus; thoracic visceral nn.; pulmonary brs. of vagus no named branches parasympathetic: smooth muscle & glands of the bronchial tree; sympathetic: vascular smooth muscle of the lungs none pulmonary plexus is located along the pulmonary vessels and primary bronchi in the root of the lung (Latin, plexus = a braid)
quadratus femoris m., n. to sacral plexus (ventral primary rami of spinal nerves L4-L5, S1) n. to the inferior gemellus m. quadratus femoris m., inferior gemellus m. none nerve to the quadratus femoris m. passes anterior to the obturator internus tendon
radial n. posterior cord of the brachial plexus posterior brachial cutaneous n., inferior lateral brachial cutaneous n., posterior antebrachial cutaneous n., superficial and deep brs. muscles of the posterior arm: triceps brachii m., anconeus m.; muscles of the posterior forearm: brachioradialis, extensor carpi ulnaris m., extensor carpi radialis longus m., extensor carpi radialis brevis m., extensor digitorum m., extensor digiti minimi m., supinator m., abductor pollicis longus m., extensor pollicis longus m., extensor pollicis brevis m., extensor indicis m. skin of the posterior arm, forearm and hand all of the muscles on the posterior side of the arm and forearm are innervated by the radial n.
radial, deep radial n. posterior interosseous n. extensor carpi radialis brevis m., supinator m., extensor digitorum m., extensor digiti minimi m., abductor pollicis longus m., extensor pollicis longus m. extensor pollicis brevis m., extensor indicis m. no cutaneous branches deep radial n. passes through the supinator m.; some authors believe that the posterior interosseous n. and the deep radial n. are synonymous, others say that when the deep radial n. emerges from the supinator in the posterior forearm it becomes the posterior interosseous n., and others say that the deep radial n. does not become the posterior interosseous n. until after its last muscular br. has been given off
radial, superficial radial n. dorsal digital brs. sympathetic motor for the skin skin of the posterolateral wrist and hand; dorsum of the lateral 3 1/2 digits (excluding the skin over the distal phalanx/nail bed) superficial radial n. is located deep to the brachioradialis muscle
ramus communicans, gray cell bodies located in the sympathetic chain ganglia none carries postganglionic sympathetic axons to the spinal nerve; spinal nerve will carry those axons peripherally to the skin, blood vessels, etc. none gray rami communicantes connect the sympathetic chain to spinal nerves at all vertebral levels (Latin, ramus = a branch)
ramus communicans, white cell bodies located in the lateral horn gray matter of spinal cord levels T1-L2; none axons contained within white rami communicantes will synapse on postganglionic cell bodies that will ultimately innervate the skin, viscera, glands, blood vessels, etc. pain from viscera is carried back to the spinal cord through the white ramus communicans white rami communicantes connect the sympathetic chain to spinal nerves at vertebral levels T1-L2; carries preganglionic sympathetic axons (Latin, ramus = a branch)
ramus, dorsal primary first branch off of the dorsal side of the spinal nerve numerous to the deep back mm.; sympathetic innervation to the skin general sense (touch, pressure, pain, heat, cold, etc.) to the skin of the back a mixed nerve containing both motor and sensory fibers (Latin, ramus = a branch)
ramus, ventral primary first branch off of the ventral side of the spinal nerve numerous to skeletal mm. of the neck, trunk and extremities; sympathetic innervation to the skin general sense (touch, pressure, pain, heat, cold, etc.) to the skin of the trunk (except the back) and extremities; visceral pain via the white rami of the sympathetic nervous system (T1-L2) a mixed nerve containing both motor and sensory fibers (Latin, ramus = a branch)
rectal plexus inferior hypogastric (pelvic) plexus, posterior part no named branches sympathetic: vascular smooth muscle of the pelvic viscera, especially the rectum; parasympathetic: smooth muscle and glands of the pelvic viscera, especially the rectum pain and general sensation from the rectum rectal plexus is continuous with the vesical plexus in the male, uterovaginal plexus in the female (Latin, plexus = a braid)
rectal, inferior pudendal n. no named branches external anal sphincter skin of the anus inferior rectal nerve is one of the first branches of the pudendal n.
recurrent laryngeal n. vagus n. (X) esophageal brs., tracheal brs., cardiac brs., pharyngeal brs., inferior laryngeal n. upper esophagus, lower pharynx, laryngeal mm. (except cricopharyngeus); smooth muscle of the trachea; secretomotor to mucosal glands in the upper esophagus, lower pharynx, larynx below the vocal fold, trachea; cardiac muscle of the heart (slows heart rate, decreases force of contraction) upper esophagus, lower pharynx, larynx below the vocal folds, GVA from heart right recurrent laryngeal n. loops posteriorly around the right subclavian a.; left recurrent laryngeal n. loops posteriorly around the aortic arch and ligamentum arteriosum; the inferior laryngeal br. supplies all intrinsic muscles of the larynx EXCEPT the cricothyroid m.
renal plexus intermesenteric plexus, aorticorenal ganglion, least thoracic splanchnic n. unnamed branches course along the renal vessels sympathetic: smooth muscle of the blood vessels supplying the kidney, renal pelvis and upper ureter; parasympathetic: smooth muscle of the renal pelvis and upper ureter pain from the kidney, renal pelvis and upper ureter renal plexus contains postganglionic sympathetic axons and preganglionic parasympathetic axons (parasympathetic axons are of vagal origin) (Latin, plexus = a braid)
root, dorsal from the dorsal horn of the spinal cord to the spinal nerve none none general sense (touch, pressure, pain, heat, cold, etc.) dorsal root is entirely sensory in function; it is located dorsal to the denticulate ligament
root, ventral from the ventral horn of the spinal cord to the spinal nerve none to skeletal mm.; preganglionic sympathetic (T1-L2) none entirely motor in function; located ventral to the denticulate ligament; at all spinal core levels it contains GSE for skeletal mm.; at levels T1-L2 it contains GVE (preganglionic sympathetic) for blood vessels, sweat glands, thoracic viscera, abdominal viscera, pelvic viscera
sacral plexus lumbosacral trunk (ventral primary rami of spinal nerves L4-L5), ventral primary rami of spinal nerves S1-S4 superior & inferior gluteal nn., n. to obturator internus m., n. to quadratus femoris m., sciatic n., n. to piriformis, posterior femoral cutaneous n., pudendal n., n. to pelvic diaphragm, pelvic splanchnic nn. muscles of the pelvic diaphragm; muscles of the urogenital diaphragm; muscles of the posterior hip, posterior thigh, leg and foot skin of the perineum, posterior thigh, leg and foot (excluding the medial side of the leg and foot) the sacral plexus is often grouped with the lumbar plexus as the "lumbosacral plexus" (Latin, plexus = a braid)
sacral splanchnic n. sacral sympathetic ganglia unnamed branches contribute to the pelvic plexus (inferior hypogastric) plexus vascular smooth muscle of the pelvic viscera pain from the pelvic viscera sacral splanchnic nn. contain both preganglionic and postganglionic sympathetic nerve fibers with postganglionic fibers predominating in number
saphenous n. femoral n. infrapatellar br. none skin of the medial side of the leg and medial side of the foot saphenous n. travels with the great saphenous v.; it does not pass through the adductor hiatus at the knee; it passes anterior to the medial malleolus at the ankle (Latin, saphenous = clearly visible)
sciatic n. sacral plexus (ventral primary rami of spinal nerves L4-L5 and S1-S3) tibial n., common fibular (peroneal) n. semitendinosus m., semimembranosus m., biceps femoris m., ischioconylar part of the adductor magnus m.; its branches supply all muscles of the leg and foot its branches supply the skin of the leg and foot (excluding the medial side of leg & foot) sciatic n. is composed of tibial and common fibular divisions; branches to muscles come from one of the two divisions, so that the sciatic n. is considered to have no direct muscular brs., only 2 terminal brs.
scrotal, anterior anterior cutaneous br. of the ilioinguinal n. no named branches none skin of the anterior aspect of the scrotum anterior scrotal n. is the continuation of the ilioinguinal n. at the superficial inguinal ring; it communicates with the genital br. of the genitofemoral n.
scrotal, posterior perineal n., from the pudendal n. no named branches none skin of the posterior aspect of the scrotum posterior scrotal n. communicates with the perineal br. of the posterior femoral cutaneous n.
semilunar ganglion ophthalmic (V1) , maxillary (V2) and mandibular (V3) divisions of the trigeminal n. sensory fibers depart via the trigeminal n. (V) none skin of the face, mucous membranes of the nasal and oral cavities, mucous membrane of the anterior 2/3rds of the tongue (GSA only) a sensory ganglion equivalent in histological structure and function to a dorsal root ganglion; also known as. trigeminal or Gasserian ganglion
short ciliary n. ciliary ganglion: sensory root - from the nasociliary n.(a branch of V1); sympathetic root - from the internal carotid plexus; parasympathetic root - from the inferior division of the oculomotor n. (III) multiple short ciliary nn. which leave the ciliary ganglion anteriorly sphincter pupillae & ciliary mm. (parasympathetic), dilator pupillae (sympathetic) eyeball (GSA) short ciliary nn. are mixed nerves which contain sensory and 2 types of autonomic nerve fibers; postganglionic parasympathetic neurons whose axons are located in these nerves have their cell bodies located in the ciliary ganglion
spinal n. formed at the point where the dorsal and ventral rootlets meet; it ends where the dorsal and ventral primary rami diverge dorsal primary ramus; ventral primary ramus to skeletal mm.; some levels carry preganglionic sympathetic axons (T1-L2) general sense (touch, pressure, pain, heat, cold, etc.) from the entire surface of the neck, trunk and extremities; visceral pain (via the white ramus communicans and the sympathetic nervous system) located at the intervertebral foramen; there are 31 pairs of spinal nerves - 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, 1 coccygeal
spiral ganglion fibers of the cochlear hair cells cochlear n. portion of the vestibulocochlear n. (VIII) none hearing (SSA) a sensory ganglion of the cochlear part of CN VIII
splanchnic, greater thoracic neurons in the intermediolateral cell column of spinal cord levels T5-T9; the greater thoracic splanchnic nerve appears to arise by multiple contributions from the sympathetic trunk no named branches celiac ganglion; preganglionic fibers supply the adrenal medulla which releases epinephrine and norepinephrine into the blood pain from the abdominal viscera greater thoracic splanchnic n. passes through the crus of the respiratory diaphragm; postganglionic processes from the celiac ganglion spread down the aorta and distribute with its branches; they innervate the vascular smooth of these vessels and vascular smooth muscle of the organs supplied
splanchnic, least thoracic neurons in the intermediolateral cell column of spinal cord level T12 no named branches renal plexus pain from the kidney and suprarenal gland least thoracic splanchnic n.pass through the crus of the diaphragm; it synapses in minute ganglia located in the renal plexus
splanchnic, lesser thoracic neurons in the intermediolateral cell column of spinal cord levels T10-T11; the lesser thoracic splanchnic nerve appears to arise by multiple contributions from the sympathetic trunk no named branches aorticorenal ganglion; pain from the kidney and suprarenal gland lesser thoracic splanchnic n. passes through the crus of the respiratory diaphragm; postganglionic processes from the ganglion supply vascular smooth muscle of branches of the renal a. and suprarenal aa.; kidney and suprarenal gland
splanchnic, lumbar lumbar sympathetic ganglia L1-L4 no named branches smooth muscle of vessels that supply the abdominal and pelvic viscera pain from abdominal and pelvic viscera sympathetic nerves; there are four of these on each side; lumbar splanchnic nn. contribute to preaortic abdominal plexuses (celiac, superior mesenteric, intermesenteric, superior hypogastric)
splanchnic, pelvic ventral primary rami of spinal nerves S2-S4 (cell bodies are located in the lateral horn gray of the sacral spinal cord) unnamed branches contribute to the pelvic plexus (inferior hypogastric) plexus smooth muscle and glands of the gut distal to the left colic flexure; smooth muscle and glands of all pelvic viscera none parasympathetic nerves; these contain preganglionic parasympathetic axons
splanchnic, sacral sacral sympathetic ganglia unnamed branches contribute to the pelvic plexus (inferior hypogastric) plexus vascular smooth muscle of the pelvic viscera pain from the pelvic viscera sacral splanchnic nn. contain both preganglionic and postganglionic sympathetic nerve fibers with postganglionic fibers predominating in number
stellate ganglion neurons in the intermediolateral cell column of spinal cord level T1 gray rami communicans to spinal nerves C8 and T1 (postganglionic sympathetic); thoracic visceral br. vascular smooth muscle, arrector pili muscle, sweat glands of the C8 & T1 cutaneous distribution on chest & upper limb (C8 and T1 dermatomes); vascular smooth muscle of the lungs pain from lungs stellate ganglion is formed by the fusion of the inferior cervical sympathetic ganglion and the T1 ganglion of the sympathetic trunk (Latin, stellate = star shaped)
subclavius m., n. to superior trunk of the brachial plexus no named branches subclavius m. no cutaneous branches nerve to subclavius m. is one of two nerves to arise from the superior trunk of the brachial plexus; suprascapular n. is the other one
subcostal n. ventral primary ramus of T12 lateral cutaneous br., anterior cutaneous br. muscles of the abdominal wall skin of the anterolateral abdominal wall the subcostal n. is equivalent to a posterior intercostal n. found at higher thoracic levels
submandibular ganglion preganglionic parasympathetic axons from the chorda tympani (accompanying the lingual n. from the mandibular division of the trigeminal n.) postganglionic parasympathetic axons distribute either directly, or with branches of the lingual n. to the submandibular and sublingual glands secretomotor to the submandibular and sublingual glands and the small glands of the lingual mucosa none a terminal parasympathetic ganglion; submandibular ganglion is suspended from the lingual n. near the deep part of the submandibular gland
submucosal ganglia of the gut preganglionic parasympathetic arrive via branches of the anterior and posterior vagal trunks (gut proximal to the left colic flexure) and pelvic splanchnic nn. (gut distal to the left colic flexure) postganglionic parasympathetic via many short fibers secretomotor to glands in the mucosa of the gut none terminal parasympathetic ganglia; parasympathetic terminal ganglia; also known as: Meissner's plexus
suboccipital n. dorsal primary ramus of spinal nerve C1 no named branches muscles of the suboccipital triangle: rectus capitis posterior major m., rectus capitis posterior minor m., obliquus capitis superior m., obliquus capitis inferior m. no cutaneous branches spinal nerve C1 has NO cutaneous distribution
subscapular, lower posterior cord of the brachial plexus (C5, C6) unnamed muscular brs. subscapularis m., teres major m. no cutaneous branches subscapularis and teres major are antagonists (medial rotation vs. lateral rotation of the humerus)
subscapular, middle posterior cord of the brachial plexus (C7, C8) unnamed muscular brs. latissimus dorsi m. no cutaneous branches also called the thoracodorsal n.
subscapular, upper posterior cord of the brachial plexus (C5, C6) unnamed muscular brs. subscapularis m. no cutaneous branches mesenchyme that forms the subscapularis is derived from somites C5 and C6
superficial fibular n. common fibular n. medial dorsal cutaneous n. to the medial side of the foot; dorsal digital nn. to the lateral 3 toes muscles of the lateral compartment of the leg (fibularis longus and brevis mm.) distal 1/3 of the anterior surface of the leg; dorsum of the foot excluding the skin of the web between the great toe and the 2nd toe and the distal interphalangeal segments of all toes nail beds are supplied by nerves from the plantar surface of the foot
superficial radial n. radial n. dorsal digital brs. sympathetic motor for the skin skin of the posterolateral wrist and hand; dorsum of the lateral 3 1/2 digits (excluding the skin over the distal phalanx/nail bed) superficial radial n. is located deep to the brachioradialis muscle
superior gluteal n. sacral plexus (ventral primary rami of spinal nerves L4-L5, S1) superior & inferior brs. gluteus medius m., gluteus minimus m., tensor fasciae latae m. none superior gluteal n. passes through the greater sciatic foramen superior to the piriformis m.
superior hypogastric plexus intermesenteric plexus and lumbar splanchnic nn. (postganglionic sympathetic axons) hypogastric nn. (right and left) vascular smooth muscle of the pelvic viscera (sympathetic) pain from the pelvic viscera; general visceral afferent from the pelvic viscera superior hypogastric plexus is the continuation of the intermesenteric plexus; it crosses the pelvic brim (Latin, plexus = a braid)
superior laryngeal n. vagus n. (X) internal br., external br. cricothyroid m., inferior pharyngeal constrictor m.; secretomotor to mucosal glands of the larynx above the vocal folds mucous membrane of the larynx above the vocal folds external br. supplies the cricothyroid m.; all other intrinsic muscles of the larynx are supplied by the recurrent laryngeal n.
superior lateral brachial cutaneous axillary no named branches none skin of the lateral side of the proximal arm emerges at the posterior edge of the deltoid muscle
superior mesenteric ganglion preganglionic sympathetic axons from the celiac plexus contributes to the superior mesenteric and intermesenteric plexuses vascular smooth muscle of brs. of the superior mesenteric a. pain from the lower half of the pancreas and duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, appendix, ascending colon and transverse colon a sympathetic ganglion; located on the abdominal aorta at the origin of the superior mesenteric a.
superior mesenteric plexus celiac plexus, superior mesenteric ganglion multiple unnamed nn. course along the branches of the superior mesenteric a. sympathetic: smooth muscle of vessels supplying the lower pancreas, lower duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, ascending colon and most of the transverse colon; parasympathetic (vagus): smooth muscle in the gut wall of same distribution area pain & GVA of the parts of the gut named at left superior mesenteric plexus contains a mixture of vagal (preganglionic parasympathetic) axons and postganglionic sympathetic axons (Latin, plexus = a braid)
supraclavicular, intermediate cervical plexus (C3&C4) no named branches none skin of the root of the neck and upper chest, near the mid-clavicle pain from respiratory diaphragm is referred to the shoulder
supraclavicular, lateral cervical plexus (C3&C4) no named branches none skin of the root of the neck and upper shoulder pain from respiratory diaphragm is referred to the shoulder
supraclavicular, medial cervical plexus (C3&C4) no named branches none skin of the root of the neck and upper chest, anteriorly pain from respiratory diaphragm is referred to the shoulder
supraorbital n. frontal n, from the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal n. (V1) medial and lateral brs. none skin of the forehead; mucous membrane of the frontal sinus supraorbital nerve passes through the supraorbital foramen (notch)
suprascapular n. superior trunk of the brachial plexus (C5-C6) no named branches supraspinatus m., infraspinatus m. no cutaneous branches suprascapular n. passes through the suprascapular notch inferior to the superior transverse scapular ligament
supratrochlear n. frontal n, from the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal n. (V1) no named branches none skin of the medial forehead and the medial part of the upper eyelid; associated conjunctiva supratrochlear n. passes superior to the trochlea (pulley) of the superior oblique m.
sural cutaneous, lateral common fibular n. fibular communicating br. none skin of the lateral side of the leg contains postganglionic sympathetic axons for supply of sweat glands, arrector pili mm. and blood vessels
sural cutaneous, medial tibial n. no named branches none skin of the posterior surface of the leg; skin of the lateral side of the foot unites with fibular communicating br. to form the sural n.
sural n. formed by the union of the fibular communicating br. of the lateral sural cutaneous n. and the medial sural cutaneous nn. lateral calcaneal brs., lateral dorsal cutaneous n. of the foot none skin of the posterior surface of the lower leg; skin of the lateral side of the foot sural n. courses posterior to the lateral malleolus at the ankle with the lesser saphenous v.
sympathetic chain ganglia preganglionic sympathetic fibers arrive via white rami communicantes of ventral primary rami of spinal nerves T1-L2 postganglionic sympathetic fibers depart via gray rami communicantes to all spinal nn.; internal & external carotid nn.; cervical cardiac brs.; thoracic direct visceral brs.; greater, lesser & least thoracic splanchnic nn.; lumbar splanchnic nn.; sacral splanchnic nn. dilator pupillae, vascular smooth muscle, arrector pili muscles, sweat glands, suprarenal medulla, heart, lungs and gut pain from viscera located lateral to the vertebral bodies in the neck, thorax & abdominopelvic cavity; the ganglia plus their interconnecting fibers are also known as the sympathetic trunk; preganglionic cell bodies are located in the intermediolateral gray matter of spinal cord levels T1-L2
sympathetic chain ganglia, cervical preganglionic sympathetic fibers arrive via white rami communicantes of ventral primary rami of spinal nerves T1-T5 postganglionic sympathetic depart via gray rami communicans to cervical spinal nn.; internal and external carotid nn.; cervical cardiac brs. dilator pupillae m.; vascular smooth muscle; arrector pili muscles and sweat glands of head and neck; heart and lungs pain from viscera located parallel to the vertebral bodies in the neck; there are no white rami communicantes at cervical levels
T1 ventral primary ramus spinal nerve T1 joins the ventral primary ramus of C8 to form the inferior trunk of the brachial plexus muscles of the forearm and hand skin of the ventral arm and ventral forearm T1 is the highest spinal nerve to have a white ramus communicans (Latin, ramus = a branch)
temporal, anterior deep mandibular division of the trigeminal n. (V3) no named branches temporalis m. no cutaneous branches a branch of the motor root of CN V; temporalis m. developed from the mesenchyme of the first pharyngeal arch
temporal, posterior deep mandibular division of the trigeminal n. (V3) no named branches temporalis m. no cutaneous branches a branch of the motor root of CN V; temporalis m. developed from the mesenchyme of the first pharyngeal arch
temporofacial division of the facial n. facial n. temporal, zygomatic and buccal brs. muscles of facial expression of the upper part of the face; frontalis m., anterior and superior auricularis mm. none temporofacial division of the facial n. usually forms a loop by communication anteriorly with the cervicofacial division
thoracodorsal n. posterior cord of the brachial plexus (C7, C8) unnamed muscular brs. latissimus dorsi m. no cutaneous branches also called the middle subscapular n.
tibial n. sciatic n. medial sural cutaneous n., medial calcaneal brs., medial and lateral plantar nn. semimembranosus m., semitendinosus m., long head of biceps femoris m., ischiocondylar portion of adductor magnus m.; mm. of the superficial and deep posterior compartments of the leg (gastrocnemius m., soleus m., plantaris m., tibialis posterior m., flexor hallucis longus m., flexor digitorum longus m.); muscles of the plantar side of the foot skin of the plantar surface of the foot and toes; skin of the dorsal surface of the distal toes (nail bed region) tibial n. is the larger of the two divisions of the sciatic n.
to carotid body glossopharyngeal n. (IX) no named branches none sensory receptors in the carotid body and carotid sinus chemoreception (blood pH) in carotid body; blood pressure receptors in carotid sinus; both located near the bifurcation of the common carotid a.; the vagus n. (X) may share a role in this innervation
to coccygeus m. sacral plexus (brs. of the ventral primary rami of spinal nerves S3-S4) no named branches coccygeus m., levator ani m. none nerve to coccygeus enters the muscle on its pelvic surface
to digastric m., posterior belly facial n. (VII) no named branches posterior belly of the digastric m. none the anterior belly of the digastric m. is formed by mesenchyme from the 1st pharyngeal arch and is supplied by the n. to the mylohyoid m. (V3)
to geniohyoid m. C1 fibers from the superior root of the ansa cervicalis no named branches geniohyoid m. none nerve to the geniohyoid m. travels with the hypoglossal nerve for a short distance in the superior neck
to obturator internus m. sacral plexus (ventral primary rami of spinal nerves L5-S2 ) n. to the superior gemellus m. obturator internus m., superior gemellus m. none nerve to obturator internus m. crosses the ischial spine and enters the ischioanal fossa by passing through the lesser sciatic foramen
to quadratus femoris m. sacral plexus (ventral primary rami of spinal nerves L4-L5, S1) n. to the inferior gemellus m. quadratus femoris m., inferior gemellus m. none nerve to the quadratus femoris m. passes anterior to the obturator internus tendon
to subclavius m. superior trunk of the brachial plexus no named branches subclavius m. no cutaneous branches nerve to subclavius m. is one of two nerves to arise from the superior trunk of the brachial plexus; suprascapular n. is the other one
transverse cervical n. cervical plexus (C2 and C3) no named branches none skin of the anterior surface of the neck transverse cervical n. penetrates the platysma m. but does not innervate it
trigeminal n. motor root arises from the trigeminal motor nucleus in the pons (SVE); sensory part arises from the trigeminal ganglion (GSA) and projects into the pons to the primary sensory nucleus of V or more inferiorly to the nucleus of the spinal root of V (medulla and upper spinal cord) ophthalmic, maxillary and mandibular divisions SVE: anterior belly of the digastric m., mylohyoid m., tensor veli palatini m., tensor tympani m.; muscles of mastication: temporalis m., masseter m., lateral pterygoid m., medial pterygoid m. skin of the face; mucous membranes of the nasal and oral cavities; general sensation (GSA) to the anterior 2/3 of the tongue also known as: CN V, 5th cranial nerve; some brs. carry pre- or postganglionic parasympathetic fibers; the trigeminal n. divides into three divisions at the trigeminal ganglion; SVE supplies muscles of 1st pharyngeal arch origin
trochlear n. trochlear nucleus of the midbrain no named branches superior oblique m. of the eye (GSE) none also known as: CN IV, 4th cranial nerve; the trochlear n. passes through the superior orbital fissure to exit the middle cranial fossa; it is the smallest cranial nerve and the only cranial nerve to arise from dorsum of brainstem (Latin, trochlea = a pulley)
tympanic n. glossopharyngeal n. tympanic plexus, which gives rise to the lesser petrosal n. secretomotor (preganglionic parasympathetic axons which will synapse in the otic ganglion) to the parotid gland mucous membrane lining the middle ear cavity tympanic n. passes from the inferior ganglion of CN IX through the tympanic canaliculus to reach the middle ear (Latin, tympanum = a kettle drum)
ulnar n. medial cord of the brachial plexus (C8, T1) palmar cutaneous br., dorsal br., superficial and deep brs. flexor carpi ulnaris m., flexor digitorum profundus m. (ulnar half), abductor digiti minimi m., flexor digiti minimi brevis m., opponens digiti minimi m., ulnar 2 lumbrical mm., palmar and dorsal interosseous mm. skin of the medial side of the wrist and hand; skin of the medial 1 1/2 digits ulnar n. is motor to most of the muscles of the hand (Latin, ulna = elbow)
upper subscapular n. posterior cord of the brachial plexus (C5, C6) unnamed muscular brs. subscapularis m. no cutaneous branches mesenchyme that forms the subscapularis is derived from somites C5 and C6
uterovaginal plexus inferior hypogastric plexus continuous with the rectal plexus sympathetic: vascular smooth muscle of the pelvic viscera, especially the uterus, uterine tubes and vagina; parasympathetic: smooth muscle and glands of pelvic viscera, especially uterus, uterine tubes and vagina pain from the pelvic viscera listed at left the uterovaginal plexus is a subsidiary plexus of the inferior hypogastric plexus (Latin, plexus = a braid)
vagus n. medulla: dorsal motor nucleus (GVE preganglionic parasympathetic); inferior ganglion (GVA); nucleus ambiguus (SVE); superior ganglion (GSA); inferior ganglion(SVA) auricular br., pharyngeal br., superior laryngeal, superior and inferior cervical cardiac brs., recurrent laryngeal n., thoracic cardiac brs., brs. to the pulmonary plexus, brs. to the esophageal plexus, anterior and posterior vagal trunks SVE: intrinsic muscles of the larynx, pharynx (except stylopharyngeus), and palate (except tensor veli palatini); GVE: smooth muscle of the respiratory tree & gut (proximal to the left colic flexure), heart; secretomotor: mucous glands of the larynx, respiratory tree, pharynx and gut; secretomotor to digestive glands GSA: skin of the external auditory meatus; GVA: viscera of head, neck, thorax & abdomen proximal to the left colic flexure; SVA: taste from the epiglottis also known as: CN X, 10th cranial nerve; the vagus n. passes through the jugular foramen to exit the posterior cranial fossa; (Latin, vagus = wanderer, due to its wide distribution to the body cavities)
ventral primary ramus first branch off of the ventral side of the spinal nerve numerous to skeletal mm. of the neck, trunk and extremities; sympathetic innervation to the skin general sense (touch, pressure, pain, heat, cold, etc.) to the skin of the trunk (except the back) and extremities; visceral pain via the white rami of the sympathetic nervous system (T1-L2) a mixed nerve containing both motor and sensory fibers (Latin, ramus = a branch)
ventral root from the ventral horn of the spinal cord to the spinal nerve none to skeletal mm.; preganglionic sympathetic (T1-L2) none entirely motor in function; located ventral to the denticulate ligament; at all spinal core levels it contains GSE for skeletal mm.; at levels T1-L2 it contains GVE (preganglionic sympathetic) for blood vessels, sweat glands, thoracic viscera, abdominal viscera, pelvic viscera
vesical plexus inferior hypogastric plexus continuous with the prostatic plexus sympathetic: vascular smooth muscle of the pelvic viscera, especially the urinary bladder, seminal vesicle, ductus deferens and ejaculatory duct; parasympathetic: smooth muscle and glands of the pelvic viscera, especially the urinary bladder, seminal vesicle, ductus deferens and ejaculatory duct pain and general sensation from the bladder, seminal vesicle and ductus deferens vesical plexus is continuous with the other autonomic nerve plexuses in the pelvis and cannot be distinguished from them (Latin, plexus = a braid)
vestibular n. pons and medulla no named branches none balance/proprioception (SSA) vestibular n. is part of the vestibulocochlear n.
vestibulocochlear n. pons & medulla: vestibular nuclei from the vestibular ganglion of the semicircular ducts; cochlear nuclei in the inferior cerebellar peduncle divides within the temporal bone into vestibular and cochlear parts none vestibular: balance/proprioception (SSA); cochlear: hearing (SSA) also known as: CN VIII, 8th cranial nerve; auditory nerve; passes into the internal auditory meatus
white ramus communicans cell bodies located in the lateral horn gray matter of spinal cord levels T1-L2; none axons contained within white rami communicantes will synapse on postganglionic cell bodies that will ultimately innervate the skin, viscera, glands, blood vessels, etc. pain from viscera is carried back to the spinal cord through the white ramus communicans white rami communicantes connect the sympathetic chain to spinal nerves at vertebral levels T1-L2; carries preganglionic sympathetic axons (Latin, ramus = a branch)
zygomatic n. maxillary division of the trigeminal n. (V2) zygomaticofacial & zygomaticotemporal carries secretomotor fibers skin of the face lateral and superior to the orbit zygomatic n. carries postganglionic parasympathetic fibers from the pterygopalatine ganglion to the lacrimal gland (via the communicating br. of the zygomaticotemporal n. which joins the lacrimal n.)
zygomaticofacial n. zygomatic from the maxillary division of the trigeminal n. (V2) no named branches none skin of face lateral to the orbit zygomaticofacial n. passes through the zygomaticofacial foramen
zygomaticotemporal n. zygomatic from the maxillary division of the trigeminal n. (V2) communicating br. carries secretomotor fibers skin of face superolateral to the orbit zygomaticotemporal n. carries postganglionic parasympathetic fibers from the pterygopalatine ganglion to the lacrimal gland (via the communicating br. which joins the lacrimal n.)

The material presented in these tables is contained in the book:
MedCharts Anatomy by Thomas R. Gest & Jaye Schlesinger
Published by ILOC, Inc., New York
Copyright 1995, unauthorized use prohibited.
The excellent editorial assistance of
Dr. Pat Tank, UAMS
is gratefully acknowledged.