Hammer Laboratory

Peer-Reviewed Publications


Zheng S, Cherniack AD, Dewal N, Hammer GD, Giordano TJ, and Verhaak RGW.  Comprehensive Pan-Genomic Characterization of Adrenocortical Carcinoma.  (2016) Cancer Cell 29, 1-14. May 9, (2016).


Kazutaka Nanba, MD, Kei Omata, MD, Scott A Tomlins, MD, PhD, Thomas J Giordano, MD, PhD, Gary D Hammer, MD, PhD, William E. Rainey, MS PhD and Tobias Else, MD. Double Adrenocortical Adenomas Harboring Independent KCNJ5 and Prkaca somatic Mutations. (2016) the European Journal of Endocrinology.  First published on 10 May 2016, doi:10.1530/EJE-16-0262.


Hammer, GD. 5th International ACC Symposium: Introduction. Horm Cancer. (2016) Feb;7(1):1-2. doi: 10.1007/s12672-015-0248-8. Epub (2016) Jan 4.  PMID: 26728468.


Finco I, LaPensee CR, Krill KT, Hammer GD. Hedgehog signaling and steroidogenesis. Annu Rev Physiol. (2015);77:105-29. doi: 10.1146/annurev-physiol-061214-111754. Review. PMID: 25668018.


LaPensee CR, Mann JE, Rainey WE, Crudo V, Hunt SW, Hammer GD. ATR-101, a Selective and Potent Inhibitor of Acyl-CoA Acyltransferase 1, Induces Apoptosis in H295R Adrenocortical Cells and in the Adrenal Cortex of Dogs. Endocrinology. (2016) Mar 17:en20152052. [Epub ahead of print]. PMID 26986192.


Nanba K, Chen AX, Omata K, Vinco M, Giordano TJ, Else T, Hammer GD, Tomlins SA, Rainey WE. Molecular Heterogeneity in Aldosterone-Producing Adenomas. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26765578. (2016) J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2016 Mar;101(3):999-1007. doi: 10.1210/jc.2015-3239. Epub 2016 Jan 14. PMID 26765578.


Bornstein SR, Allolio B, Arlt W, Barthel A, Don-Wauchope A, Hammer GD, Husebye ES, Merke DP, Murad MH, Stratakis CA, Torpy DJ. Diagnosis and Treatment of Primary Adrenal Insufficiency: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. (2016) Feb;101(2):364-89. doi: 10.1210/jc.2015-1710. Epub 2016 Jan 13. PMID 26760044.


Lee J, Yang DJ, Lee S, Hammer GD, Kim KW, Elmquist JK. Nutritional conditions regulate transcriptional activity of SF-1 by controlling sumoylation and ubiquitination. Sci Rep. (2016) Jan 11;6:19143. doi: 10.1038/srep19143. PMID 2675045.


Bornstein SR, Allolio B, Arlt W, Barthel A, Don-Wauchope A, Hammer GD, Husebye ES, Merke DP, Murad MH, Stratakis CA, Torpy DJ. Diagnosis and Treatment of Primary Adrenal Insufficiency: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline.  J Clin Endocrinol Metab. (2016) Jan 13:jc20151710. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 26760044


Lee J, Yang DJ, Lee S, Hammer GD, Kim KW and Elmquist JK. Nutritional conditions regulate transcriptional activity of SF-1 by controlling sumoylation and ubiquitination. Scientific Reports. (2016) Jan 11;6:19143. doi: 10.1038/srep19143. PMID: 26750456.


Basham, KJ, Hung, HA, Lerario, AM and Hammer GD. Mouse models of adrenocortical tumors. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology. (2016) Feb 5;421:82-97. doi: 10.1016/j.mce.2015.11.031. Epub 2015 Dec 8. PMID: 26678830.


Nogueira TM, Lirov R, Caoili EM, Lerario AM, Miller BS, Fragoso MC, Dunnick NR, Hammer GD and Else T. Radiographic characteristics of adrenal masses preceding the diagnosis of adrenocortical cancer. Hormones and Cancer. (2015) Aug;6(4):176-81. doi: 10.1007/s12672-015-0225-2. Epub 2015 May 29. PMID: 26021762.


Xing Y, Lerario AM, Rainey W and Hammer GD. Development of adrenal cortex zonation. Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America. (2015) Jun; 44(2):243-274. doi: 10.1016/j.ecl.2015.02.001. PMID: 26038200.


Finco I, LaPensee CR, Krill KT and Hammer GD. Hedgehog signaling and steroidogenesis. The Annual Review of Physiology. (2015); 77:105-29. doi: 10.1146/annurev-physiol-061214-111754. PMID: 25668018.


Fassnacht M, Berruti A, Baudin E, Demeure MJ, Gilbert J, Haak H, Kroiss M, Quinn DI, Hesseltine E, Ronchi CL, Terzolo M, Choueiri TK, Poondru S, Fleege T, Rorig R, Chen J, Stephens AW, Worden F and Hammer GD. Linsitinib (OSI-906) versus placebo for patients with locally advanced or metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma: a double-blind, randomized, phase 3 study. Lancet Oncology. (2015) Apr;16(4):426-35. doi: 10.1016/S1470-2045(15)70081-1. Epub 2015 Mar 18. PMID: 25795408.


Sabolch A, Else T, Griffith, KA, Ben-Josef E, Williams A, Miller BS, Worden F, Hammer GD, and Jolly S. Adjuvant radiotherapy improves local control after surgical resection in patients with localized adrenocortical carcinoma: A retrospective cohort study running title: International Journal of Radiation Oncology - Biology - Physics (2015) Mar 5. pii: S0360-3016(15)00026-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2015.01.007. [Epub ahead of print]. PMID: 25754631.


Walczak EM and Hammer GD. Regulation of the adrenocortical stem cell niche: implications for disease.Nature Reviews Endocrinology. (2015) Jan;11(1):14-28. doi: 10.1038/nrendo.2014.166. Epub 2014 Oct 7. PMCID: PMC4648246.


Lerario AM,  Worden FP, Ramm CA, Hasseltine EA Stadler WM, Shah MH, Agamah E, Rao K and Hammer GD. The combination of insulin-like growth factor receptor 1 (IGF1R) antibody cixutumumab and mitotane as a first-line therapy for patients with recurrent/metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma: a multi-institutional NCI-sponsored phase II study. Hormones and Cancer (2014) December 5(6):424. PMID: 24849545. Free public access: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12672-014-0182-1.


Williams A, Hammer GD, Else T.  Transcutaneous biopsy of adrenocortical carcinoma is rarely helpful in diagnosis, potentially harmful, but does not affect patient outcome. European Journal of Endocrinology (2014)170 829-835. PMCID: PMC4096775.


Walczak EM, Kuick,R, Finco I, Bohin, N, Hrycaj S, Wellick, D and Hammer G. Wnt-signaling inhibits adrenal steroidogenesis by cell-autonomous and non-cell autonomous mechanisms. Molecular Endocrinology (2014) September 28 (9): 1471-86. PMCID: PMC4154239.


Auchus RJ, Buschur EO, Chang AY, Hammer GD, Ramm C, Madrigal M, Wang G, Gonzalez M, Xu S, Smit JW, Jiao J and Yu MK. Abiraterone acetate to lower androgens in women with classic 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. (2014) 2014 August 99(8):2763-70. PMCID: PMC4121028. PMID: 24780050.


Subramanian C, Zhang H, Gallagher R, Hammer G, Timmermann B. and Cohen M. Withanolides are potent novel targeted therapeutic agents against adrenocortical carcinomas. World Journal of Surgery (2014) June 38 (6): 1343-1352.  PMID: 24763440.


Raymond VM, Long JM, Everett JN, Caoili EM, Gruber SB, Stoffel EM, Giordano TJ, Hammer GD and Else T. An oncocytic adrenal tumor in a patient with Birt-Hogg-DubŽ syndrome. Clinical Endocrinology (Oxf). (2014) Jun 80(6): 925-7. PMCID: PMC3893308. PMID: 23848572.


Else T, Williams AR, Sabolch A, Jolly S, Miller BS and Hammer GD. Adjuvant therapies, patient and tumor characteristics associated with survival of adult patients with adrenocortical carcinoma. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. (2014) Feb 99(2): 455-61. PMC3913818. PMID: 24302750.


Else T, Kim A, Sabolch A, Raymond V, Kandathil A, Caoili E, Shruti J, Miller BS, Giordano TJ and Hammer GD. Adrenocortical carcinoma. Endocrine Reviews. (2014) April 35(2):282-326.Jan 1:er20131029. [Epub ahead of print] PMCID: PMC3963263. PMID: 24423978.


Berruti A, Fassnacht M, Haak H, Else T, Baudin E, Sperone P, Kroiss M, Kerkhofs T, Williams AR, Ardito A, Leboulleux S, Volante M, Deutschbein T, Feelders R, Ronchi C, Grisanti S, Gelderblom H, Porpiglia F, Papotti M, Hammer GD, Allolio B and Terzolo M. Prognostic role of overt hypercortisolism in completely operated patients with adrenocortical cancer. European Urology. (2014) Apr: 65(4):832-8. PMID: 24268504.


Wood MA, Acharya A, Finco I, Swonger JM, Elston MJ, Tallquist MD and Hammer GD. Fetal adrenal capsular cells serve as progenitor cells for steroidogenic and stromal adrenocortical cell lineages in M. musculus. Development. (2013) Nov;140(22):4522-32. doi: 10.1242/dev.092775. Epub 2013 Oct 16. PMCID: PMC3817941.


Lerario AM, Moraitis A and Hammer GD. Genetics and epigenetics of adrenocortical tumors. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology. (2013) Nov 9. pii: S0303-7207(13)00468-1. doi: 10.1016/j.mce. 2013.10.028. [Epub ahead of print], PMCID: PMC3943605.


Raymond VM, Everett JN, Furtado LV, Gustafson SL, Jungbluth CR, Gruber SB, Hammer GD, Stoffel EM, Greenson JK, Giordano TJ and Else T. Adrenocortical carcinoma is a Lynch syndrome associated cancer. Journal of Clinical Oncology. (2013) Aug 20;31(24):3012-8. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2012.48.0988. Epub 2013 Jul 22. PMCID: PMC3739861. PMID: 23752102.


Krill KT, Gurdziel K, Heaton JH, Simon DP and Hammer GD. Dicer deficiency reveals micro-RNAs predicted to control gene expression in the developing adrenal cortex. Molecular Endocrinology. 2013 May;27(5):754-68. doi: 10.1210/me.2012-1331. Epub (2013) Mar 21. PMCID: PMC3634112. PMID: 23518926.


Frana MM, Ferraz-de-Souza B, Santos MG, Lerario AM, Fragoso MC, Latronico AC, Kuick RD, Hammer GD and Lotfi CF. POD-1 binding to the E-box sequence inhibits SF-1 and StAR expression in human adrenocortical tumor cells. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology. (2013) May 22; 371(1-2):140-7. doi: 10.1016/j.mce.2012.12.029. Epub (2013) Jan 9. PMID: 23313103.


Raymond VM, Else T, Everett JN, Long JM, Gruber SB and Hammer GD. Prevalence of germline TP53 mutations in a prospective series of unselected patients with adrenocortical carcinoma. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. (2013) Jan 98(1):119-25. PMCID: PMC3537086.


Heaton JH, Wood MA, Kim AC, Lima LO, Barlaskar FM, Almeida MQ, Fragoso MCBV, Kuick R, Lerario AM, Simon DP, Soares IC, Starnes E, Thomas DG, Latronico AC, Giordano TJ and Hammer GD. Progression to adrenocortical tumorigenesis in mice and humans through insulin-like growth factor 2 and _-catenin. The American Journal of Pathology 181(3):1017-33 (2012). PMCID: PMC3432433.


Miller BS, Gauger PG, Hammer GD and Doherty GM. Resection of adrenocortical carcinoma is less complete and local recurrence occurs sooner and more often after laparoscopic adrenalectomy than after open adrenalectomy. Surgery 152(6):1150-7 (2012). PMID: 23158185. Free public access at: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0039606012004771#.


Miller BS, Ignatoski KM, Daignault S, Lindland C, Doherty M, Gauger PG, Hammer GD, Wang SC, Doherty GM and The University of Michigan Analytical Morphomics Group. Worsening central sarcopenia and increasing intra-abdominal fat correlate with decreased survival in patients with adrenocortical carcinoma. World Journal of Surgery. 36(7):1509-16 (2012).


Simon DP, Giordano TJ and Hammer GD. Upregulated JAG1 Enhances cell proliferation in adrenocortical carcinoma. Clinical Cancer Research 18(9):2452-64 (2012) (highlighted on cover). PMCID: PMC3848076.


Simon DP and Hammer GD. Adrenocortical stem and progenitor cellsÑimplications for adrenocortical carcinoma. Molecular Cellular Endocrinology. 2012 Mar 31; 351(1):2-11 (2012).


Sabolch A, Feng M, Griffith K, Hammer, G, Doherty G, and Ben-Josef E. Adjuvant and definitive radiotherapy for adrenocortical carcinoma. International Journal of Radiation Oncology ¥ Biology ¥ Physics. 80(5):1477-84 (2011).


Nasonkin OI, Ward RD, Bavers DL, Beuschlein F, Mortensen AH, Keegan CE, Hammer GD and Camper SA. Aging Prop1 deficient dwarf mice maintain ACTH production. PLOS ONE.  6(12):e28355. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0028355 (2011).


Scheys JOA, Heaton JH and Hammer GD. Evidence of adrenal failure in aging Dax1-deficient mice. Endocrinology Sep;152(9): 3430-9 (2011).


Dobrosotskaya IY, Hammer GD, Schteingart DE, Maturen KE, and Worden FP. Mebendazole monotherapy provides long-term disease control in metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma. Endocrine Practice March 31:1-13 (2011).


Wood MA and Hammer GD. Adrenocortical stem and progenitor cells: Unifying model of two proposed origins. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology. 336(1-2):206-12 (2011).


Kelly VR and Hammer GD. LRH and Nanog regulate Dax1 transcription in mouse embryonic stem cells. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 332(1-2):116-24 (2011).


Miller BS, Gauger PG, Hammer GD, Giordano TJ and Doherty GM. Proposal for modification of the ENSAT staging system for adrenocortical carcinoma using tumor grade, Langebeck's Archives of Surgery 395(7): 955-961 (2010).


Miller BS, Ammori JB, Gauger PG, Broome JT, Hammer GD and Doherty GM. Laparoscopic resection is inappropriate in patients with known or suspected adrenocortical carcinoma. World Journal of Surgery 34(6):1380-5 (2010).


Garcia-Perez JL, Morell M, Scheys JO, Kulpa DA, Morell S, Carter CC, Hammer GD, Collins KL, OÕShea KS, Menendez P and Moran JV. Efficient and reversible epigenetic silencing of LINE-1 retrotransposition events in embryonic carcinoma cells. Nature 466(7307):769-73 (2010).


Watson RL, Spalding AC, Zielske SP, Morgan A, Kim M, Bommer GT, Eldar-Finkelman H, Giordano T, Fearon ER, Hammer GD Lawrence TS and Ben-Josef E. GSK3_ and _-catenin modulate radiation cytotoxicity in pancreatic cancer. Neoplasia 12(5): 357-365 (2010). Free public access at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2864473/.


Haluska P, Worden F, Olmos D, Yinv D, Schteingart D, Batzel GN, Paccagnella ML, de Bono JS, Richardson RL, Gualberto AG and Hammer GD. Safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of the anti-IGF-1R monoclonal antibody CP-751,871 in patients with refractory adrenocortical carcinoma. Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 65(4):765-73 (2010).


Kelly VR, Xu B, Koenig RJ and Hammer GD. Dax1 upregulates OCT4 expression in mouse embryonic stem cells via LRH-1 and SRA. Molecular Endocrinology 24 (12): 2281-2291 (2010).


Looyenga BD, Wiaters E, Vale WW and Hammer GD. Inhibin-A Antagonizes TGF_2 Signaling by down regulating cell surface expression of the TGF_ co-receptor Betaglycan. Molecular Endocrinology 24(3): 608-620 (2010).


Strosberg JR, Hammer GD and Doherty GM. Management of adrenocortical carcinoma. (Invited, peer-reviewed) Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network 7(7):752-9 (2009).


Else T, Kim AC, Trovoto A, Ferguson DO, Lucas PC and Hammer GD. Genetic p53 deficiency partially rescues the adrenocortical dysplasia phenotype at the expense of increased tumorigenesis. Cancer Cell 15(6): 465-476 (2009). PMCID: PMC2703790.


Kim AC, Barlaskar FM, Heaton JH, Else T, Kelly VR, Krill KT, Scheys JO, Simon DP, Trovato A, Yang W-H, and Hammer GD. In search of adrenocortical stem and progenitor cells.  (Invited, peer-reviewed) Endocrine Reviews 30 (3): 241-263 (2009).


Barlaskar FM, Spalding AC, Heaton JH, Davis MA, Ben-Josef E, and Hammer GD. Preclinical targeting of the type I insulin-like growth factor receptor in adrenocortical carcinoma. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 94(1): 204-12 (2009).


Giordano TJ, Kuick R, Else T, Gauger PG, Vinco M, Bauersfeld J, Sanders D, Thomas DG, Doherty G and Hammer GD. Molecular classification and prognostication of adrenocortical tumors by transcriptome profiling. Clinical Cancer Research. 15(2): 668-76 (2009). PMCID: PMC2629378.


Xu B, Yang W-H, Gerin I, Hu C-D, Hammer GD and Koenig RJ. DAX-1 and steroid receptor RNA activator (SRA) function as transcriptional coactivators for steroidogenic factor-1 in steroidogenesis. Molecular and Cellular Biology 29(7):1719-34 (2009).


Yang W-H, Heaton JH, Brevig H, Mukherjee S, I–iguez-Lluh’ JA and Hammer GD. Sumoylation inhibits SF-1 activity by reducing CDK7 mediated Ser-203 phosphorylation. Molecular and Cellular Biology. 29(3): 613-25 (2009).


Kim AC, Reuter AL Zubair M, Serecky K, Else T, Bingham NC, Lavery GG, Parker KL and Hammer GD. Targeted disruption of _-catenin in Sf-1-expressing cells impairs development and maintenance of the adrenal cortex. Development 135 (15): 2593-602 (2008).

White ML, Cho KJ, Gauger PG, Doherty GM, Hammer GD, Miller BS. The role of radiologic studies in the evaluation and management of primary hyperaldosteronism. Surgery 2008 144(6):926-33 (2008).


Rui X, Tsao J, Scheys JO, Hammer GD, Schimmer BP. Contributions of Sp1 and steroidogenic factor 1 to adcy4 expression in Y1 mouse adrenal cells. Endocrinology 149(7); 3668-78. (2008).


Else T, Giordano TJ, Hammer GD. Evaluation of telomere length maintenance mechanisms in adrenocortical carcinoma. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. Apr; 93(4):1442-9 (2008).


Barlaskar FM and Hammer GD. The molecular genetics of adrenocortical carcinoma. Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders 8(4): 343-8 (2007) (invited, peer-reviewed).


Hockemeyer D, Else T, Daniels J-P., Palm W, Ye JZ-S., deLange T, and Hammer GD. Cooperative telomere protection provides evidence for correspondence of POT1/TPP1 to ciliate TEBP_/_. Nature Structural and Molecular Biology 14(8): 754-61 (2007).


Keegan CE, Hutz JE, Krause AS, Koehler K, Metherell LA, Boikos S, Stergiopoulos S, Clark AJ, Stratakis CA, Huebner A, and Hammer GD. Novel polymorphisms and lack of mutations in the ACD gene in patients with ACTH resistance syndromes. Clinical Endocrinology; 67(2): 168-174 (2007).


Kim A and Hammer GD. Functional characterization of undifferentiated adrenocortical Cells with stem/progenitor cell properties: Review of literature and recent advances. (Invited, peer-reviewed) Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 265-266: 10-16 (2007).


Lichtenauer U, Duchniewicz M, Kolanczyk M, Hšflich A, Hahner S, Else T, Bicknell AB, Tomasz Zemojtel T, Stallings NR, Hammer GD, Scheele J and Beuschlein F. Pbx-1 and SF-1 synergistically affect adrenocortical growth and steroidogenesis. Endocrinology 148 (2): 693-704 (2007).


Else T, Theisen BK, Hutz JE, Keegan CE, Hammer GD and Ferguson DO. Tpp1/Acd maintains genomic stability through a complex role in telomere protection. Chromosome Research 15(8): 1001-13 (2007).


Looyenga BD and Hammer GD. Genetic removal of Smad3 from inhibin-null mice attenuates tumor progression by uncoupling extracellular mitogenic signals from the cell cycle machinery. Molecular Endocrinology 21: 2440-2457 (2007).


Gummow BM, Scheys JO, Cancelli VR and Hammer GD. Reciprocal regulation of a GR-SF-1 transcription complex on the Dax-1 promoter by glucocorticoids and ACTH in the adrenal cortex. Molecular Endocrinology 20 (11): 2711-23 (2006).


Looyenga BD and Hammer GD. Origin and identity of adrenocortical tumors in inhibin knockout mice: Implications for cellular plasticity in the adrenal cortex. Molecular Endocrinology 20 (11): 2848-63 (2006).


Johnsen IK, Slawik M, Shapiro I, Hartmann MF, Wudy SA, Looyenga BD, Hammer GD, Reincke M, Beuschlein F.  Gonadectomy in mice of the inbred strain CE/J induces proliferation of subcapsular adrenal cells expressing gonadal marker genes. Journal of Endocrinology 190 (1): 47-57 (2006).


Martin M and Hammer GD. Pheochromocytoma: Risk groups, diagnosis and management in primary care. Hospital Physician 42 (2): 17-24 (2006).


Hutz JE, Krause AS, Achermannm J, Vilain E, Tauber M, Lecointre C, McCabe ERB, Hammer GD and Keegan CE. IMAGe association and congenital adrenal hypoplasia: No disease-causing mutations found in the ACD gene. Molecular Genetics and Metabolism 88 (1): 66-70 (2006).


Winnay JN and Hammer GD. ACTH-mediated signaling cascades coordinate a cyclic pattern of SF-1-dependent transcriptional activation. Molecular Endocrinology. 20 (1): 147-166 (2006).


Winnay JN, Xu Z, O'Malley BW and Hammer GD. SRC 1 deficient mice exhibit altered hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis function. Endocrinology. 147 (3): 1322-32 (2006).


Else T and Hammer GD. Genetic analysis of adrenal absence: agenesis and aplasia. Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism 16 (10): 458-468 (2005).


Park SY, Raverot G, Meeks JJ, Pfaff LE, Weiss J, Hammer GD and Jameson JL. Nuclear receptors Sf1 and Dax1 function cooperatively to mediate somatic cell differentiation during testis. Development 132 (10): 2415-2423 (2005).


Schteingart DE, Doherty GM, Gauger PG, Giordano TJ, Hammer GD, Korobkin, M and Worden F. Management of patients with adrenal cancer: Recommendations of an international consensus conference. Endocrine-Related Cancer 12 (3): 667-680 (2005).


Hammer GD, Parker KL and Schimmer BP. Transcriptional control of adrenocortical development. (Invited, peer-reviewed) Endocrinology 146 (3): 1018-24 (2005).


Keegan CE, Hutz JE, Else T, Adamska M, Sah SP, Kent AE, Howes J, Beamer WG and Hammer GD. Urogenital and caudal dysgenesis in adrenocortical dysplasia (acd) mice is caused by a splicing mutation in a novel telomeric regulator. Human Molecular Genetics 14 (1): 113-123 (2005).


Hammer GD, Tyrrell JB, Lamborn KR, Applebury CB, Hannegan ET, Bell S, Rahl R., Lu A and Wilson CB. Transphenoidal microsurgery for Cushing's disease: Initial outcome and long term results. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 89 (12): 6348-6357 (2004).


Beuschlein F, Looyenga BD, Reincke M and Hammer GD. Role of the inhibin/activin system and luteinizing hormone in adrenocortical tumorigenesis. (Invited, peer-reviewed) Hormone and Metabolic Research 36: 392-396 (2004).


Gummow BM, Winnay JN and Hammer GD. Convergence of Wnt signaling and SF-1 on transcription of the rat inhibin alpha gene. Journal of Biological Chemistry 278 (29): 26572-26579 (2003).


Beuschlein F, Looyenga BD, Mutch C, Bleasdale S, Bavers DL, Parlow AF, Nilson JH and Hammer GD. Activin induces X-zone apoptosis that inhibits luteinizing hormone-dependent adrenocortical tumor formation in inhibin deficient mice. Molecular and Cellular Biology 23 (11): 3951-3964 (2003).


Kennell JA, OLeary EE, Gummow BM, Hammer GD and MacDougald OA. 2003. TCF-4N, a novel isoform of mouse TCF-4, synergizes with _-catenin to coactivate C/EBP_ and SF-1 transcription factors. Molecular and Cellular Biology 23 (15): 5366-75 (2003).


Keegan CE and Hammer GD. Recent insights into Organogenesis of the adrenal cortex.  (Invited, peer-reviewed) Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism 13 (5): 200-208 (2002).


Beuschlein F, Mutch C, Bavers DL, Ulrich-Lai Y, Engeland WC, Keegan C and Hammer GD. Steroidogenic Factor-1 is essential for compensatory adrenal growth following unilateral adrenalectomy. Endocrinology 143 (8): 3122-35 (2002).


Babu PS, Bavers DL, Beuschlein F, Shah S, Jeffs B, Jameson JL and Hammer GD. Interaction between Dax-1 and SF-1 in vivo: Increased adrenal responsiveness to ACTH in the absence of Dax-1. Endocrinology 143 (2): 665-673 (2002).


Beuschlein F and Hammer GD. Ectopic POMC syndromes in endocrine manifestations of systemic disease. (Invited, peer-reviewed) Endocrinology Clinics of North America 31: 1-44 (2002).


Hammer GD and Ingraham HA. Steroidogenic Factor 1: Its role in endocrine organ development and differentiation. (Invited, peer-reviewed) Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology 20: 199-223 (1999).


Hammer GD, Kylova I, Zhang Y, Darimont BD, Simpson K, Weigel NL and Ingraham HA. Phosphorylation of the nuclear receptor SF-1 modulates cofactor recruitment: Integration of hormone signaling in reproduction and stress. Molecular Cell 3 (4): 521-526 (1999).


Nachtigal MW, Horokawa Y, Enyeart Van Houten DL, Flanagan JN, Hammer GD and Ingraham HA. WilmsÕ Tumor 1 and Dax-1 modulate the orphan nuclear receptor SF-1 in sex-specific gene expression. Cell 93 (3): 445-454 (1998).


Low MJ, Liu B, Hammer GD, Rubinstein M and Allen RG. Posttranslational processing of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) in mouse pituitary melanotroph tumors induced by a POMC-simian virus 40 large T antigen transgene. Journal of Biological Chemistry 268 (33): 24967-24975 (1993).


Asa SL, Kovacs K, Hammer GD, Liu B, Roos BA and Low MJ. Pituitary corticotroph hyperplasia in rats implanted with a medullary thyroid carcinoma cell line transfected with a corticotropin-releasing hormone cDNA expression vector. Endocrinology 131 (2): 715-720 (1992).


Liu B, Hammer GD, Rubinstein M, Mortrud M and Low MJ. Identification of DNA elements cooperatively activating proopiomelanocortin gene expression in the pituitary gland of transgenic mice. Molecular and Cellular Biology. 12 (9): 3978-3900 (1992).


Hammer GD, Muller G, Liu B, Petrides JS, Roos BA and Low MJ. Ectopic corticotropin-releasing hormone produced by a transfected cell line chronically activates the pituitary-adrenal axis in trankaryotic rats. Endocrinology 130 (4): 1975-1985 (1992).


Hammer GD, Fairchild-Huntress V and Low MJ. Pituitary-specific and hormonally regulated gene expression directed by the rat proopiomelanocortin promoter in transgenic mice. Molecular Endocrinology 4 (11): 1689-1697 (1990).


Hammer GD and Kapp BS. The effects of naloxone administered into the periaqueductal gray on the shock-elicited freezing behavior in the rat. Behavioral and Neural Biology 46: 189-195 (1986).