Links & Publication
Transgenic Animal Model
University of Michigan
- University of Michigan
- University of Michigan M-Cores
- University of Michigan Faculty Research Exchange
- University of Michigan Medical School Research Resources
- University of Michigan Directory
- University of Michigan Medical Center
- University of Michigan Medical School
- University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center
- Center for Organogenesis
- Center for Organogensis Morphology Core
- DNA Sequencing Core
- Biomedical Research Core Facilities
- National Vector Core
- University Committee on the Use and Care of Animals
- Division of Research Development and Administration
- Michigan Life Sciences Corridor
- International Society for Transgenic Technologies
- Transgenic email List
- Comparative Medicine
- Embryo Mail - all scientific aspects of mammalian embryology
- Mouse Genome Informatics email List
- Rat Community Forum
Mouse Genome Sequence
- NCBI Mouse SNPs
- Trace Repositories
- See also Trans-NIH Mouse Initiative
- The Advanced Retrieval Tool for SNPs
- Find candidate SSR markers/primer pairs in mouse chromosomal DNA sequence
- SNP2RFLP: Mouse SNPs Between Strains that Create RFLPs
- 8 million SNPs and other genetic differences in mouse strains
- SNPview at GNF: 10,990 SNPs genotyped in 48 mouse strains
- Mouse FunSNP - An annotated database of mouse functional single nucleotide polymorphisms
- High resolution map of the mouse genome from SNPs
Molecular Genetics Resources
- AceView: gene annotation and alternative transcripts
- Functional Annotation of Mouse cDNAs Database (FANTOM)
- Cloning Vector Database - SHIGEN
- Jackson Genotyping Protocols
- Jackson Mouse Genome Informatics
- Medical Research Council Mammalian Genetics Unit
- National Center for Biotechnology Information
- Primer3 PCR Primer Picking Software
- Primer Design for SNP Genotyping
- Speed Congenic Markers at CIDR
Commercial Genotyping Services
DNA and Gene Cloning Services
- Blue Heron Biotechnology
- Blue Sky Biotech
- Gene Bridges
- Integrated DNA Technologies
- Modular Genetics
- Vega Biolab
Who Has My Genetically Engineered Mouse/ES Cell Clone?
Knockout Mouse Project (KOMP) Repository
NIH KnockOut Mouse Project (KOMP)Federation of International Mouse Resources (FIMRe)
International Knockout Mouse Consortium (IKMC)
European Conditional Mouse Mutagenesis Program (EUCOMM)
Texas A&M Institute of Genomic Medicine (TIGM)
Unitrap Database of Gene Trapped ES Cell Clones
Canadian Mouse Mutant Repository (CMMR)
Center for Animal Resources and Development Database (CARD)
European Mouse Mutant Archive (EMMA)
Japan Mouse/Rat Strain Resources Database
RIKEN BioResource Center
Taconic Knockout Repository
Sanger KOMP Targeted Mutagenesis
International Gene Trap Consortium
European Conditional Mouse Mutagenesis Program
Sanger Institute Genetrap Resource
Baylor Mouse Mutagenesis Center for Developmental Defects
CMHD Mutagenesis Core and Gene Trap Core
German Gene Trap Consortium
Harwell Mutagenesis Program
International Mouse Mutagenesis Consortium (IMMC)
Riken Large Scale Mutagenesis Project
Stem Cells at the National Academies
See also Trans-NIH Mouse Initiative
More Mouse Databases - Has Someone Made Your Cre or Conditional Mouse?
Cre Mouse Portal at The Jackson Laboratory
Andras Nagy's Cre-X-Mice: A Database of Cre Transgenic Lines
Mouse Cre Database at the Institut Clinique de la Souris
Cre Zoo Database at the Fleming Institute
International Mouse Strain Resource
Mutant Mouse Regional Resource Centers
The Jackson Laboratory Induced Mutant Resource
Mouse Biology Resources
Onformation Resources for
Animal Welfare and Alternatives
Jackson Laboratory Links
The Microinjection Workshop
The Virtual Embryo
Whole Mouse Catalog
Guidelines for the Care and Use of Mammals in Neuroscience and Behavioral Research
Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (1996)
Online Atlases of Mouse Developmental
Edinburgh Mouse Atlas Project (EMAP)
Edinburgh Mouse Atlas Project Anatomy Browser
Edinburgh Mouse Atlas Project 3D Digital Atlas
Duke Center for In Vivo Microscopy Mouse Atlas
Mouse Biomedical Research Informatics Network (BIRN) Atlasing Toolkit
Caltech µMRI Atlas of Mouse Development
Mouse Limb Anatomy Atlas
Allen Institute for Brain Science: Developing Mouse Brain Atlas
Mouse Diffusion Tensor Imaging Atlas of Developing Mouse Brains at BIRN
Laboratory of Neuro Imaging at UCLA: Mouse Atlas Project
The Electronic Prenatal Mouse Brain Atlas
Vascular Atlas of the Developing Mouse Embryo
The Mouse Anatomical Dictionary
In Situ Hybridization Mouse Gene Expression Databases
Edinburgh Mouse Atlas of
Gene Expression (EMAGE)
Gene Expression Database (GXD)
Gene Expression Database Notebook
GenePaint Digital Atlas of Gene Expression
The Allen Developing Mouse Brain Atlas
Brain Gene Expression Map
GENSAT Brain Atlas of Gene Expression
Preimplantation Embryo Whole Mount in situ Hybridization
GenitoUrinary Development Molecular Anatomy Project (GUDMAP)
European Renal Genome Projet Kidney Atlas
Wnt Pathway in Mouse Embryos
Genomic Libraries of Gene Expression
Mouse Atlas of Gene
GermSAGE: Male Germ Cell Transcriptome
GonadSAGE: Male Embryonic Gonad Transcriptome
ArrayExpress Gene Expression Atlas
Gene Expression Omnibus
Gene Expression Database in 4D
Cerebellar Development Transcriptome Database
Transgenic Web Sites
Baylor College of Medicine
Genetically Engineered Mouse Core
Beth Israel Deaconess Transgenic Facility
Case Western Reserve University Transgenesis and Targeting Service
Columbia-Presbyterian Cancer Center Transgenic Mouse Research Center
Duke University Trangenic Mouse Facility
Emory University Transgenic Mouse Core Facility
Johns Hopkins University Transgenic Core Laboratory
Indiana University School of Medicine Transgenic & Knockout Mouse
Lexicon Genetics, Inc.
Massachusetts General Hospital Transgenic Core
Medical College of Georgia Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell and Transgenesis Core Laboratories
Medical College of Wisconsin Transgenic Core Facility
Medical University of South Carolina in Charleston Transgenic Core
Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Mouse Genetics Shared Resource Facility
New York University Cancer Institute Transgenic Mouse/Embryonic Stem Cell Chimera Facility
NCI-Frederick Transgenic and Knock-out Services
Northwestern University Transgenic and Targeted Mutagenesis Core Facility
Ohio State University Transgenic Animal Facility
Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation Mouse Genome Manipulation Facility
Oregon Health and Science University Transgenics/Gene Targeting Facility
Penn State College of Medicine Transgenic Core Research Facility
Princeton University Transgenic Core Facility
Purdue University Transgenic Mouse Core Facility
Roswell Park Cancer Institute Gene Targeting and Transgenics Facility
Stanford Transgenic Research Facility Shared Resource
SUNY-Stony Brook Transgenic Mouse and ES-cell Facility
Thomas Jefferson University Transgenic and Gene Targeting Facility
Tufts-New England Medical Center Transgenic Core Facility
Tulane University Transgenic Mouse Facility
University of Alabama, Birmingham Transgenic Mouse Facility
University of Albany Transgenic Mouse Core
University of Arizona Cancer Center Genetically Engineered Mouse Shared Service
University of California, Davis Murine Targeted Genomics Laboratory
University of California, Irvine Transgenic Mouse Facility
University of California, Los Angeles Transgenic Mouse Facility
University of California, San Diego Medical Center Moores Cancer Center Transgenic Mouse and Gene Targeting Core
University of California, San Francisco Cancer Center Transgenic/Targeted MutagensisFacilty
University of Chicago Transgenic Core
University of Cincinnati Gene Targeted Mouse Facility
University of Cincinnati Transgenic Mouse Facility
University of Colorado, Boulder, Transgenic Facility
University of Colorado Health Science Center Transgenic and Gene Targeting Core
University of Connecticut Health Center Gene Targeting and Transgenic Facility
University of Illinois, Chicago, Transgenic Production Service
University of Iowa, Transgenic Animal Facility
University of Kansas Transgenic and Gene Targeting Institutional Facility
University of KentuckyTransgenic Facility
University of Massachusetts Transgenic Animal Modeling Core
University of Miami School of Medicine (Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center), Transgenic and Targeted Mutant Mouse Core Facility
University of Michigan Transgenic Animal Model Core
University of Minnesota Mouse Genetics Laboratory
University of Missouri, Columbia
University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey Transgenic Core Facility
Universty of Nevada Transgenic Center
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
University of Pennsylvania Transgenic and Chimeric Mouse Facility
University of Rochester Medical Center Transgenic Facility
University of Texas at Austin Mouse Genetic Engineering Facility
University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston
University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio
University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center
University of Texas Medical Branch Transgenic Mouse Facility
Universtity of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas Transgenic Core Facility
University of Utah Transgenic/Gene Targeting Facility
University of Virginia Gene Targeting and Transgenic Facility
University of Washington Transgenic Animal Resources
University of Wisconsin Biotechnology Center, Transgenic Animal Facility
Vanderbilt University Transgenic Mouse/ES Cell Shared Resource
Virginia Commonwealth University Transgenic Mouse Core Facility
Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Transgenic and Gene-Knockout Mouse Facility
Washington University School of Medicine Mouse Genetics Core
Yale University Animal Resources Center
Norwegian Transgenic Center
Searching the Web for
Mouse Models of Human Disease and Genetically Altered Mouse
The number of genetically engineered mice available for study is rapidly increasing. Considerable savings in animal life and research dollars are possible when existing transgenic or gene targeted mouse strains can be used for experimental studies. In addition, investigators may find that a spontaneous mouse mutant may provide insight into their research questions. Unfortunately, there is no single comprehensive repository for all genetically altered mice.We list vendors that have mice for sale. In addition, there are information databases which describe mouse models.
The Jackson Laboratory in Bar Harbor, Maine, has a large number of mouse strains for distribution. Lines with specific genetic alterations can be found by searching various databases for the Induced Mutant Resource, the Mouse Mutant Resource, and the Lane List of Named Mutations Maintained at the Jackson Laboratory.
The Jackson Laboratory Induced Mutant Resource of genetically engineered mice can be searched over the internet. The database lists several disease model categories. For example, there are 47 listings in the Strain Category of Breast Cancer of the search form. Linking to the first listing takes us to information on a mouse with an experimentally induced mutation in the ataxia telangiectasia gene. Another takes us to the Mouse Locus Catalog entry and a detailed comparison of human disease and the phenotype of this mouse model, including 10 references.
The Jackson Laboratory also maintains the Mouse Genome Database. This excellent source of information includes information on spontaneous mouse mutants. When spina bifida is entered as a search term in the phenotype field of the "Genes, Markers and Phenotypes Query Form", 8 known mouse genes are returned. Linking to the first gene in the list returns a description of mice with the "curly tail" mutation and 18 research papers.
The Transgenic/Targeted Mutation Database (TBase) hosted at The Jackson Laboratory. Selecting mouse in the common name of organism filed and entering muscular dystrophy as the search term in the phenotype field of the search form returns a list of mouse lines related to this disease. Linking to the first mouse line on the list provides a detailed description of the line and links to other related lines.
Access to the Mouse Knock-Out and Mutation database is obtained through BioMedNet. Enter arthritis into the search filed and 8 published studies of arthritis models that use gene targeted mice are retrieved.
Frontiers in Bioscience also maintains a database of gene knockout mice at http://www.bioscience.org/knockout/knochome.htm. Genes are listed in alphabetical order, with links to published research papers.
The Medical Research Council's Mammalian Genetics Unit at Harwell, UK, has more than 200 mouse strains available for distribution. These include both genetically engineered mice and spontaneous mutants. A searchable database is available at http://www.mgu.har.mrc.ac.uk/facilities/stocklist/
The National Institute of Genetics of Japan lists more than 100 strains of mice available for study at http://www.shigen.nig.ac.jp/mouse/strain/index_e.php
A more limited number of transgenic, gene targeted, and mutant mouse lines are also available from commercial vendors such as: Charles River Laboratory , Taconic, and Harlan Sprague Dawley. B & K Universaloffer a partial listing of their available mice.
Key Gene Targeting
Revised Nomenclature of 129 mouse strains from The Jackson Laboratory.
Auerbach W, Dunmore JH,
Fairchild-Huntress V, Fang Q, Auerbach AB, Huszar D, Joyner AL. 2000.
Establishment and chimera analysis of 129/SvEv- and C57BL/6-derived mouse
embryonic stem cell lines. Biotechniques. 29:1024-1032.
Doetschman, TC, Eistetter, H, Katz, M, Schmidt, W, Kemler, R. 1985. The in vitro development of blastocyst-derived embryonic stem cell lines:
formation of visceral yolk sac, blood islands and myocardium. J. Embryol. Exp. Morphol. 87:27-45.
Fedorov LM, Haegel-Kronenberger H, Hirchenhain J. 1997. A comparison of the germline potential of differently aged ES cell lines and their transfected descendants. Transgenic Res. 6:223-31.
George SH, Gertsenstein M, Vintersten K, Korets-Smith E, Murphy J, Stevens ME, Haigh JJ, Nagy A. 2007. Developmental and adult phenotyping directly from mutant embryonic stem cells. ProcNatlAcadSci U S A. 104:4455-60.
Hughes ED, Qu YY, Genik SJ, Lyons RH, Pacheco CD, Lieberman AP, Samuelson LC, Nasonkin IO, Camper SA, Van Keuren ML, Saunders TL. 2007. Genetic variation in C57BL/6 ES cell lines and genetic instability in the Bruce4 C57BL/6 ES cell line. Mamm Genome. 18:549-558.
Kontgen F, Suss G,
Stewart C, Steinmetz M, Bluethmann H. 1993. Targeted disruption of the MHC class
II Aa gene in C57BL/6 mice. IntImmunol. 5:957-64.
Lemckert FA, Sedgwick JD, Körner H. 1997. Gene targeting in C57BL/6 ES cells. Successful germ line transmission using recipient BALB/c blastocysts developmentally matured in vitro. Nucleic Acids Res. 25:917-918.
Liu X, Wu H, Loring J, Hormuzdi S, Disteche CM, Bornstein P, Jaenisch R. 1997. Trisomy eight in ES cells is a common potential problem in gene targeting and interferes with germ line transmission.<>DevDyn. 209:85-91.
Longo L, Bygrave A, Grosveld FG, Pandolfi PP. 1997. The chromosome make-up of mouse embryonic stem cells is predictive of somatic and germ cell chimaerism. Transgenic Res. 6:321-328.
Mansour, SL, Thomas, KR, Deng, CX, Capecchi, MR. 1990. Introduction of a lacZ reporter gene into the mouse int-2 locus by homologous recombination. Proc. Natl. Acad .Sci. U.S.A. 87:7688-7692
McMahon AP, Bradley A.1990. The Wnt-1 (int-1) proto-oncogene is required for development of a large region of the mouse brain.Cell. 62:1073-85.
Nagy A. Crerecombinase: the universal reagent for genome tailoring. Genesis. 2000 Feb;26(2):99-109. Download This Paper.
Nagy A, Rossant J, Nagy R, Abramow-Newerly W, Roder JC. 1993. Derivation of completely cell culture-derived mice from early-passage embryonic stem cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 90:8424-8428.
Ramirez-Solis R, Rivera-Perez J, Wallace JD, Wims M, Zheng H, Bradley A. 1992. Genomic DNA microextraction: a method to screen numerous samples. Anal Biochem. 201(2):331-5.
Schuster-Gossler K, Lee AW, Lerner CP, Parker HJ, Dyer VW, Scott VE, Gossler A, Conover JC. 2001. Use of coisogenic host blastocysts for efficient establishment of germline chimeras with C57BL/6J ES cell lines. Biotechniques. 31:1022-1026.
Seong E, Saunders TL, Stewart CL, Burmeister M. 2004. To knockout in 129 or in C57BL/6: that is the question. Trends Genet.20:59-62.
Simpson EM, Linder CC, Sargent EE, Davisson MT, Mobraaten LE, Sharp JJ. 1997. Genetic variation among 129 substrains and its importance for targeted mutagenesis in mice. Nat. Genet. 16:19-27.
Swiatek, PJ, and Gridley T. 1993. Perinatal lethality and defects in hindbrain development in mice homozygous for a targeted mutation of the zinc finger gene Krox20. Genes and Develop. 7:2071-2084.
teRiele, H, Maandag, ER, Berns, A. 1992. Highly efficient gene targeting in embryonic stem cells through homologous recombination with isogenic DNA constructs. Proc. Natl. Acad .Sci. U.S.A. 89:5128-5132.
Threadgill DW, Yee D, Matin A, Nadeau JH, Magnuson T. 1997 Genealogy of the 129 inbred strains: 129/SvJ is a contaminated inbred strain. Mamm Genome. 8:390-3.
Thomas, KR, Capecchi, MR. 1987. Site-directed mutagenesis by gene targeting in mouse embryo-derived stem cells. Cell 51:503-512.
Tybulewicz, VLJ, Crawford, CE, Jackson, PK, Bronson, PT, Mulligan, RC. 1991. Neonatal lethality and lymphopenia in Mice with a homozygous disruption of the c-abl proto-oncogene. Cell 65:1153-1163.
van Deursen J, Wieringa B. Targeting of the creatine kinase M gene in embryonic stem cells using isogenic and nonisogenic vectors. 1992. Nucleic Acids Res. 20:3815-3820.
Zhou L, Rowley DL, Mi QS, Sefcovic N, Matthes HW, Kieffer BL, Donovan DM. Murine inter-strain polymorphisms alter gene targeting frequencies at the mu opioid receptor locus in embryonic stem cells. Mamm Genome. 2001 Oct;12(10):772-8.
Zinc Finger Nuclease
Modified Mice and Rats
ZFN Rat Knockout Models from the Rat Genome Database
Rat Knockout Models at the Knock Out Rat Consortium
Carbery ID, Ji D, Harrington A, Brown V,
Weinstein EJ, Liaw L, Cui X. 2010. Targeted genome modification in mice using
zinc-finger nucleases. Genetics. 186:451-9.
Cui X, Ji D, Fisher DA, Wu Y, Briner DM, Weinstein EJ. 2011. Targeted integration in rat and mouse embryos with zinc-finger nucleases. Nat Biotechnol. 29:64-7.
Geurts AM, Cost GJ, Freyvert Y, Zeitler B, Miller JC, Choi VM, Jenkins SS, Wood A, Cui X, Meng X, Vincent A, Lam S, Michalkiewicz M, Schilling R, Foeckler J, Kalloway S, Weiler H, Ménoret S, Anegon I, Davis GD, Zhang L, Rebar EJ, Gregory PD, Urnov FD, Jacob HJ, Buelow R. 2009.. Knockout rats via embryo microinjection of zinc-finger nucleases. Science. 325:433.
Meyer M, de Angelis MH, Wurst W, Kühn R. 2010. Gene targeting by homologous recombination in mouse zygotes mediated by zinc-finger nucleases. ProcNatlAcadSci U S A. 107:15022-6.
Rémy S, Tesson L, Ménoret S, Usal C, Scharenberg AM, Anegon I. 2010. Zinc-finger nucleases: a powerful tool for genetic engineering of animals. Transgenic Res. 19:363-71.
Prof. Dr. Hermann Bujard's Website on Tetracycline Controlled Transcriptional Activation
NIH Mammary Gland Biology Website
in vivo Applications
in vitro Applications
Furth, PA, St Onge, L, Boger, H, Gruss, P, Gossen, M, Kistner, A, Bujard, H, Hennighausen, L. 1994. Temporal control of gene expression in transgenic mice by a tetracycline-responsive promoter. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 91:9302-9306.
Gill, G, Ptashne, M. 1988. Negative effect of the transcriptional activator GAL4. Nature. 334:721-723.
Kistner, A, Gossen M, Zimmermann, F, Jerecic, J, Ullmer, C, Lubbbert, H, Bujard, H. 1996. Doxycycline-mediated quantitative and tissue-specific control of gene expression in transgenic mice. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93:10933-10938.
Passman, RS, Fishman, GI. 1994. Regulated expression of foreign genes in vivo after germline transfer. J. Clin. Invest.94:2421-2425.
Schultze, N, Burki, Y, Lang Y, Certa, U, Bluethmann, H. 1996. Efficient Control of gene expression by single step integration of the tetracycline system in transgenic mice. Nature Biotechnology. 14:499-503.
Shockett, P, Difilippantonio, M, Hellman, N, Schatz, DG. 1995. A modified tetracycline-regulated system provides autoregulatory, inducible gene expression in cultured cells and transgenic mice. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 92:6522-6526.
St-Onge, L, Furth, PA, Gruss, P. 1996. Temporal control of the Crerecombinase in transgenic mice by a tetracycline responsive promoter. Nucl. Acids Res. 24:3875-3877.
Yu Z, Redfern CS, Fishman GI. 1996. Conditional transgene expression in the heart. Circ. Res. 79:691-697.
Dhawan, J, Rando, TA, Elson, SL, Bujard, H, Blau, HM. 1995. Tetracycline-regulated gene expression following direct gene transfer into mouse skeletal muscle. Somat Cell Mol Genet 21:233-240.
Efrat, S, Fusco-DeMane, D, Lemberg, H, al Emran, O, Wang, X. 1995. Conditional transformation of a pancreatic beta-cell line derived from transgenic mice expressing a tetracycline-regulated oncogene. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 92:3576-3580.
Ewald, D, Li, M, Efrat, S, Auer, G, Wall, RJ, Furth, PA, Hennighausen, L. 1996. Time-sensitive reversal of hyperplasia in transgenic mice expressing SV40 T antigen. Science. 273:1384-1386.
Hennighausen, L, Wall, RJ, Tillmann, U, Li, M, Furth, PA. 1995. Conditional gene expression in secretory tissues and skin of transgenic mice using the MMTV-LTR and the tetracycline responsive system. J. Cell. Biochem. 59:463-472.
Mayford, M, Bach, ME, Huang, YY, Wang, L, Hawkins, RD, Kandel, ER. 1996. Control of memory formation through regulated expression of a CaMKII transgene. Science 274:1678-1683.
Ackland-Berglund, CE, Leib, DA. 1995. Efficacy of tetracycline-controlled gene expression is influenced by cell type. Biotechniques. 18:196-200.
Gossen, M, Bujard, H. Tight control of gene expression in mammalian cells by tetetracycline-responsive promoters. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 89:5547-5551.
Gossen, M, Freundlieb, S, Bender, G, Muller, G, Hillen, W, Bujard, H. 1995. Transcriptional activation by tetracyclines in mammalian cells. Science, 268:1766-1769.
Deuschle, U, Meyer, WK, Thiesen, HJ. 1995. Tetracycline-reversible silencing of eukaryotic promoters. Mol. Cell. Biol. 15:1907-1914.
Hofmann, A, Nolan, GP, Blau, HM. 1996. Rapid retroviral delivery of tetracycline-inducible genes in a single autoregulatory cassette. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93:5185-5190.
Mifepristone (RU486) Regulated Transgene Expression
Araki, K, Araki, M, Miyazaki, J, Vassalli, P. 1995. Site-specific recombination of a transgene in fertilized eggs by transient expression of Crerecombinase. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 92:160-164.
de Wit T, Drabek D,
Grosveld F. 1998. Microinjection of crerecombinase RNA induces site-specific
recombination of a transgene in mouse oocytes. Nucleic Acids Res. 26:676-678.
Kaartinen V, Nagy A. 2001. Removal of the floxed neo gene from a conditional knockout allele by the adenoviral Crerecombinase in vivo. Genesis. 31:126-129.
Lauth M, Moerl K, Barski JJ, Meyer M. 2000. Characterization of Cre-mediated cassette exchange after plasmid microinjection in fertilized mouse oocytes. Genesis. 27:153-8.
Peitz M, Pfannkuche K, Rajewsky K, Edenhofer F. 2002. Ability of the hydrophobic FGF and basic TAT peptides to promote cellular uptake of recombinant Crerecombinase: a tool for efficient genetic engineering of mammalian genomes. ProcNatlAcadSci U S A. 299:4489-4494.
Sato M, Yasuoka Y, Kodama H, Watanabe T, Miyazaki JI, Kimura M. 2000. New approach to cell lineage analysis in mammals using the Cre-loxP system. MolReprod Dev. 56:34-44.
Stecca B, Southwood CM, Gragerov A, Kelley KA, Friedrich VL Jr, Gow A. 2000. The evolution of lipophilin genes from invertebrates to tetrapods: DM-20 cannot replace proteolipid protein in CNS myelin. J Neurosci. 20:4002-4010.
Sunaga S, Maki K, Komagata Y, Ikuta K, Miyazaki JI. 1997. Efficient removal of loxP-flanked DNA sequences in a gene-targeted locus by transient expression of Crerecombinase in fertilized eggs. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 46:109-113.
Xu X, Li C, Garrett-Beal L, Larson D, Wynshaw-Boris A, Deng CX. 2001. Direct removal in the mouse of a floxed neo gene from a three-loxP conditional knockout allele by two novel approaches. Genesis. 30:1-6.
Proof of Principle
Kuhn, R, Schwenk, F, Aguet, M, Rajewsky, K. 1995 . Inducible gene targeting in mice. Science 269:1427-1429.
Lasko, M, Pichel, JG, Gorman, JR, Sauer, B, Okamoto, Y, Lee, E, Alt, FW, Westphal, H. 1996. Efficient in vivo manipulation of mouse genomic sequences at the zygote stage. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93:5860-5865.
Orban, PC, Chui, D, Marth, JD. 1992. Tissue- and site-specific DNA recombination in transgenic mice. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 89:6861-6865.
Sauer B. 1993. Manipulation of transgenes by site-specific recombination: use of Crerecombinase Methods Enzymol. 225:890-900.
Schwenk, F, Baron, U, Rajewsky, K. 1995. A cre-transgenic mouse strain for the ubiquitous deletion of loxP-flanked gene segments including deletion in germ cells. Nucl. Acids Res. 23:5080-5081.
Sunaga, S, Maki, K, Komagata, Y, Ikuta, K, Miyazaki, JI. 1997. Efficient removal of loxP-flanked DNA sequences in a gene-targeted locus by transient expression of Crerecombinase in fertilized eggs. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 46:109-113.
Betz, UA, Vosshenrich, CA, Rajewsky, K, Muller, W. 1996. Bypass of lethality with mosaic mice generated by Cre-loxP-mediated recombination. Curr. Biol. 6:1307-1316.
Brooks, AI, Muhkerjee, B, Panahian, N, Cory-Slechta, D, Federoff, HJ.1997. Nerve growth factor somatic mosaicism produced by herpes virus-directed expression of crerecombinase. Nat. Biotechnol. 15:57-62.
Feil, R, Brocard, J, Mascrez, B, LeMeur, M, Metzger, D, Chambon, P. 1996. Ligand-activated site-specific recombination in mice. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93:10887-10890.
Gu, H, Marth, JD, Orban, PC, Mossmann, H, Rajewsky, K. 1994. Deletion of a DNA polymerase beta gene segment in T cells using cell type-specific gene targeting. Science. 265:103-106.
Hennet ,T, Hagen, FK, Tabak, LA, Marth, JD. 1995. T-cell-specific deletion of a polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyl-transferase gene by site-directed recombination. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 92 :12070-12074
Kitamoto, T, Nakamura, K, Nakao, K, Shibuya, S, Shin, RW, Gondo, Y, Katsuki, M, Tateishi, J. 1996.Humanized prion protein knock-in by Cre-induced site-specific recombination in the mouse. BiochemBiophys. Res. Comm. 222:742-747.
Lakso, M, Sauer, B, Mosinger B Jr, Lee, EJ, Manning, RW, Yu, SH, Mulder, KL, Westphal, H. 1992. Targeted oncogene activation by site-specific recombination in transgenic mice. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 89:6232-6236.
Lewandosk,i M, Wassarman KM, Martin, GR. 1997. Zp3-cre, a transgenic mouse line for the activation or inactivation of loxP-flanked target genes specifically in the female germ line. Curr. Biol. 7:148-151.
Pichel, JG, Lakso, M, Westphal, H. 1993. Timing of SV40 oncogene activation by site-specific recombination determines subsequent tumor progression during murine lens development. Oncogene. 8:3333-8342.
St-Onge, L, Furth, PA, Gruss, P. 1996. Temporal control of the Crerecombinase in transgenic mice by a tetracycline responsive promoter. Nucl. Acids Res. 24:3875-3877.
Tsien, JZ, Chen, DF, Gerber, D, Tom, C, Mercer, EH, Anderson, DJ, Mayford, M, Kandel, ER, Tonegawa, S.1996. Subregion- and cell type-restricted gene knockout in mouse brain. Cell 87:1317-1326.
Wang, Y, Krushel, LA, Edelman, GM. 1996. Targeted DNA recombination in vivo using an adenovirus carrying the crerecombinase gene. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 3:3932-3936.
Zhang Y, Riesterer C, Ayrall AM, Sablitzky F, Littlewood TD, Reth M. 1996. Inducible site-directed recombination in mouse embryonic stem cells. Nucl. Acids Res. 24:543-548.
P1 Genomic Clones and
Callow MJ, Stoltzfus LJ, Lawn RM, Rubin EM. 1994. Expression of human apolipoprotein B and assembly of lipoprotein(a) in transgenic mice. Proc. Natl. Acad .Sci. U.S.A. 91:2130-2134.
Linton, MF, Farese, RV Jr, Chiesa, G, Grass, DS, Chin, P, Hammer, RE, Hobbs, HH, Young, SG. 1993. Transgenic mice expressing high plasma concentrations of human apolipoprotein B100 and lipoprotein(a). J. Clin. Invest. 92:3029-3037.
Liu, C, Yu K, Shen, K, Liu Z, Noguchi, CT. 1996. Transgenic mice containing the human erythropoietin receptor gene exhibit correct hematopoietic and neural expression. ProcAssoc Am Physicians 108:449-454.
McCormick, SP, Linton, MF, Young, SG. 1994. Expression of P1 DNA in mammalian cells and transgenic mice. Genet Anal Tech Appl 11:158-164
McCormick, SP, Ng, JK, Veniant, M, Boren, J, Pierotti, V, Flynn, LM, Grass, DS, Connolly, A, Young, SG. 1996. Transgenic mice that overexpress mouse apolipoprotein B. Evidence that the DNA sequences controlling intestinal expression of the apolipoprotein B gene are distant from the structural gene. Biol. Chem. 271:11963-11970.
Smith DJ, Zhu Y, Zhang J, Cheng JF, Rubin EM. 1995. Construction of a panel of transgenic mice containing a contiguous 2-Mb set of YAC/P1 clones from human chromosome 21q22.2. Genomics 27:425-434.
Wagner, SD, Gross, G, Cook, GP, Davies, SL, Neuberger, MS. 1996. Antibody expression from the core region of the human IgH locus reconstructed in transgenic mice using bacteriophage P1 clones. Genomics 35:405-414.
BAC Transgenic Mice
Van Keuren ML, Gavrilina GB, Filipiak WE, Zeidler MG, Saunders TL.2009. Generating transgenic mice from bacterial artificial chromosomes: transgenesis efficiency, integration and expression outcomes. Transgenic Res. 18:769-785.
Antoch, MP, Song, EJ, Chang, AM, Vitaterna, MH, Zhao, Y, Wilsbacher, LD, Sangoram, AM, King, DP, Pinto, LH, Takahashi, JS. 1997. Functional identification of the mouse circadian Clock gene by transgenic BAC rescue. Cell 89:655-667.
Chrast R, Scott HS, Antonarakis SE Linearization and purification of BAC DNA for the development of transgenic mice. Transgenic Res 1999 Apr;8(2):147-50. (Note that the methods in this paper are more time-intensive that those described on this website.)
Kim, S, Horrigan, S, Altenhofen, J, Arbieva, Z, Hoffman, R, Westbrook, C. 1998. Modification of bacterial artificial chromosome clones using Crerecombinase: Introduction of selectable markers for expression in eukaryotic cells. Genome Research 8:404-412.
Kim, UJ, Birren, BW, Slepak, T, Mancino, V, Boysen, C, Kang, HL, Simon, MI, Shizuya, H. 1996. Construction and characterization of a human bacterial artificial chromosome library. Genomics 34:213-218.
Lee JT, Lu N, Han Y . Genetic analysis of the mouse X inactivation center defines an 80-kb multifunction domain. ProcNatlAcadSci U S A 1999 Mar 30;96(7):3836-41
Mullins, LJ, Kotelevtseva, N, Boyd, AC, Mullins, JJ. 1997. Efficient Cre-lox linearisation of BACs: applications to physical mapping and generation of transgenic animals. Nucleic Acids Res. 25:2539-2540.
Nielsen, LB, McCormick, SP, Pierotti, V, Tam, C, Gunn, MD, Shizuya, H, Young, SG. 1997. Human apolipoprotein B transgenic mice generated with 207- and 145-kilobase pair bacterial artificial chromosomes. Evidence that a distant 5'-element confers appropriate transgene expression in the intestine. J. Biol. Chem. 272:29752-29758.
Nielsen LB, McCormick SP, Young SG A new approach for studying gene regulation by distant DNA elements in transgenic mice. Scand J Clin Lab Invest Suppl 1999;229:33-9
Probst, FJ, Fridell, RA, Raphael, Y, Saunders, TL,Wang, A,Liang, Y, Morell, RJ, Touchman, JW, Lyons, RH, Noben-Trauth, K, Friedman, TB, Sally A. Camper, SA. 1998. Correction of Deafness in shaker-2 Mice by an Unconventional Myosin in a BAC Transgene. Science. 280:1447 - 1451.
Xu, J, Yang, D, Domingo, J, Ni, J, Huang, N. 1998. Screening for overlapping bacterial artificial chromosome clones by PCR analysis with an arbitrary primer. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 95: 5661-5666.
Yang XW, Model P, Heintz N. 1997. Homologous recombination based modification in Escherichia coli and germline transmission in transgenic mice of a bacterial artificial chromosome. Nat. Biotechnol. 15:859-865.
Yang XW, Wynder C, Doughty ML, Heintz N BAC-mediated gene-dosage analysis reveals a role for Zipro1 (Ru49/Zfp38) in progenitor cell proliferation in cerebellum and skin. Nat Genet 1999 Aug;22(4):327-35
Yu W, Misulovin Z, Suh
H, Hardy RR, Jankovic M, Yannoutsos N, Nussenzweig MC. Coordinate regulation of
RAG1 and RAG2 by cell type-specific DNA elements 5' of RAG2. Science 1999 Aug
Genomic Sequence Comparisons to Identify Gene Regulatory Elements
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Dubchak I, Brudno M, Loots GG, Pachter L, Mayor C, Rubin EM, Frazer KA. 2000. Active conservation of noncoding sequences revealed by three-way species comparisons. Genome Res. 10:1304-6.
Touchman JW, Dehejia A, Chiba-Falek O, Cabin DE, Schwartz JR, Orrison BM, Polymeropoulos MH, Nussbaum RL.2001. Human and mouse alpha-synuclein genes: comparative genomic sequence analysis and identification of a novel gene regulatory element. Genome Res. 11:78-86.
Jareborg N, Durbin R. Alfresco--a workbench for comparative genomic sequence analysis. 2001. Genome Res. 10:1148-57.
Jareborg N, Birney E, Durbin R. 1999. Comparative analysis of noncoding regions of 77 orthologous mouse and human gene pairs. Genome Res. 9:815-24.